FNF 12.31.13 10-K
 
 
 
 
 
UNITED STATES SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
Washington, D.C. 20549
Form 10-K
(Mark One)
 
R
ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
 
For the Fiscal Year Ended December 31, 2013
or
o
TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
  Commission File No. 1-32630
 _________________________________
 Fidelity National Financial, Inc.
(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)
Delaware
 
16-1725106
(State or other jurisdiction of incorporation or organization)
 
(I.R.S. Employer Identification No.)
 
 
 
601 Riverside Avenue
Jacksonville, Florida 32204
 (Address of principal executive offices, including zip code)
 
(904) 854-8100
 (Registrant’s telephone number,
including area code) 
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:
Title of Each Class
 
Name of Each Exchange on Which Registered
Common Stock, $0.0001 par value
 
New York Stock Exchange
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act: None
 
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act.  Yes R     No o
 
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Act.  Yes o     No R
 
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days.  Yes R     No o
 
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically and posted on its corporate Web site, if any, every Interactive Data File required to be submitted and posted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§ 232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit and post such files).  Yes R    No o
 
Indicate by check mark if disclosure of delinquent filers pursuant to Item 405 of Regulation S-K (§ 229.405) is not contained herein, and will not be contained, to the best of registrant’s knowledge, in definitive proxy or information statements incorporated by reference in Part III of this Form 10-K, or any amendment to this Form 10-K.  R
 
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, or a smaller reporting company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer” and “smaller reporting company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act. (Check one):
Large accelerated filer R
 
     Accelerated filer o
 
Non-accelerated filer o
(Do not check if a smaller reporting company)  
 
Smaller reporting company o
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act).  Yes o     No R
 
The aggregate market value of the shares of the common stock held by non-affiliates of the registrant as of June 30, 2013 was $5,145,188,402 based on the closing price of $23.81 as reported by the New York Stock Exchange.
 
As of January 31, 2014, there were 276,328,287 shares of Common Stock outstanding.
 
The information in Part III hereof for the fiscal year ended December 31, 2013, will be filed within 120 days after the close of the fiscal year that is the subject of this Report.
 
 
 
 
 



FIDELITY NATIONAL FINANCIAL, INC.
FORM 10-K
TABLE OF CONTENTS

 
 
Page
Number
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 


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Table of Contents

PART I

Item 1.
Business 
We are a leading provider of title insurance, technology and transaction services to the real estate and mortgage industries. We are the nation’s largest title insurance company through our title insurance underwriters - Fidelity National Title, Chicago Title, Commonwealth Land Title and Alamo Title - that collectively issue more title insurance policies than any other title company in the United States. We also provide industry-leading mortgage technology solutions and transaction services, including MSP®, the leading residential mortgage servicing technology platform in the U.S., through our majority-owned subsidiaries, Black Knight Financial Services, LLC ("BKFS") and ServiceLink Holdings, LLC ("ServiceLink"). In addition, we own majority and minority equity investment stakes in a number of entities, including American Blue Ribbon Holdings, LLC ("ABRH"), J. Alexander’s, LLC ("J. Alexander's"), Remy International, Inc. ("Remy"), Ceridian HCM, Inc., Comdata Inc. (collectively "Ceridian") and Digital Insurance, Inc. ("Digital Insurance").
As of December 31, 2013, we had five reporting segments as follows:
FNF Core Operations
Fidelity National Title Group. This segment consists of the operations of our title insurance underwriters and related businesses. This segment provides core title insurance and escrow and other title related services including collection and trust activities, trustee’s sales guarantees, recordings and reconveyances, and home warranty insurance.
FNF Corporate and Other. The FNF corporate and other segment consists of the operations of the parent holding company, certain other unallocated corporate overhead expenses, and other smaller real estate and insurance related operations.
Portfolio Company Investments
Remy. This segment consists of the operations of Remy, in which we have a 51% ownership interest. Remy is a leading designer, manufacturer, remanufacturer, marketer and distributor of aftermarket and original equipment components for automobiles, light trucks, heavy-duty trucks and other vehicles.
Restaurant Group. The Restaurant Group segment consists of the operations of ABRH, in which we have a 55% ownership interest. ABRH is the owner and operator of the O'Charley's, Ninety Nine Restaurants, Max & Erma's, Village Inn and Bakers Square concepts. This segment also includes J. Alexander's, which includes the Stoney River Legendary Steaks ("Stoney River") concept.
Portfolio Company Corporate and Other. The Portfolio Company Corporate and Other segment primarily consists of our share in the operations of certain equity investments, including Ceridian, Digital Insurance and other smaller operations which are not title related.
Competitive Strengths
We believe that our competitive strengths include the following:
Leading title insurance company.  We are the largest title insurance company in the United States and a leading provider of title insurance and escrow and other title-related services for real estate transactions. Through the third quarter of 2013, our insurance companies had a 32.2% share of the U.S. title insurance market, according to the American Land Title Association ("ALTA").
Established relationships with our customers.  We have strong relationships with the customers who use our title services. Our distribution network, which includes approximately 1,200 direct residential title offices and approximately 5,000 agents, is among the largest in the United States. We also benefit from strong brand recognition in our multiple title brands that allows us to access a broader client base than if we operated under a single consolidated brand and provides our customers with a choice among brands.
Strong value proposition for our customers.  We provide our customers with title insurance and escrow and other title-related services that support their ability to effectively close real estate transactions. We help make the real estate closing more efficient for our customers by offering a single point of access to a broad platform of title-related products and resources necessary to close real estate transactions.
Proven management team.  The managers of our operating businesses have successfully built our title business over an extended period of time, resulting in our business attaining the size, scope and presence in the industry that it has today. Our managers have demonstrated their leadership ability during numerous acquisitions through which we have grown and throughout a number of business cycles and significant periods of industry change.

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Competitive cost structure.  We have been able to maintain competitive operating margins in part by monitoring our businesses in a disciplined manner through continual evaluation of title order activity and management of our cost structure. When compared to our industry competitors, we also believe that our structure is more efficiently designed, which allows us to operate with lower overhead costs.
Commercial title insurance.  While residential title insurance comprises the majority of our business, we are also a significant provider of commercial real estate title insurance in the United States. Our network of agents, attorneys, underwriters and closers that service the commercial real estate markets is one of the largest in the industry. Our commercial network combined with our financial strength makes our title insurance operations attractive to large national lenders that require the underwriting and issuing of larger commercial title policies.
Corporate principles.  A cornerstone of our management philosophy and operating success is the six fundamental precepts upon which we were founded, which are:
Autonomy and entrepreneurship;
Bias for action;
Customer-oriented and motivated;
Minimize bureaucracy;
Employee ownership; and
Highest standard of conduct.
These six precepts are emphasized to our employees from the first day of employment and are integral to many of our strategies described below.
We believe that our competitive strengths position us well to take advantage of future changes to the real estate market.
Strategy
Fidelity National Title Group
Our strategy in the title insurance business is to maximize operating profits by increasing our market share and managing operating expenses throughout the real estate business cycle. To accomplish our goals, we intend to do the following:
Continue to operate multiple title brands independently.  We believe that in order to maintain and strengthen our title insurance customer base, we must operate our strongest brands in a given marketplace independently of each other. Our national and regional brands include Fidelity National Title, Chicago Title, Commonwealth Land Title, Lawyers Title, Ticor Title, and Alamo Title. In our largest markets, we operate multiple brands. This approach allows us to continue to attract customers who identify with a particular brand and allows us to utilize a broader base of local agents and local operations than we would have with a single consolidated brand.
Consistently deliver superior customer service.  We believe customer service and consistent product delivery are the most important factors in attracting and retaining customers. Our ability to provide superior customer service and consistent product delivery requires continued focus on providing high quality service and products at competitive prices. Our goal is to continue to improve the experience of our customers, in all aspects of our business.
Manage our operations successfully through business cycles.  We operate in a cyclical industry and our ability to diversify our revenue base within our core title insurance business and manage the duration of our investments may allow us to better operate in this cyclical business. Maintaining a broad geographic revenue base, utilizing both direct and independent agency operations and pursuing both residential and commercial title insurance business help diversify our title insurance revenues. We continue to monitor, evaluate and execute upon the consolidation of administrative functions, legal entity structure, and office consolidation, as necessary, to respond to the continually changing marketplace. We maintain shorter durations on our investment portfolio to mitigate our interest rate risk. A more detailed discussion of our investment strategies is included in “Investment Policies and Investment Portfolio.”
Continue to improve our products and technology.  As a national provider of real estate transaction products and services, we participate in an industry that is subject to significant change, frequent new product and service introductions and evolving industry standards. We believe that our future success will depend in part on our ability to anticipate industry changes and offer products and services that meet evolving industry standards. In connection with our service offerings, we are continuing to deploy new information system technologies to our direct and agency operations. We expect to improve the process of ordering title and escrow services and improve the delivery of our products to our customers.
Maintain values supporting our strategy.  We believe that our continued focus on and support of our long-established corporate culture will reinforce and support our business strategy. Our goal is to foster and support a corporate culture where our employees and agents seek to operate independently and profitably at the local level while forming close customer relationships by meeting customer needs and improving customer service. Utilizing a relatively flat managerial structure and providing our employees with a sense of individual ownership supports this goal.

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Effectively manage costs based on economic factors.  We believe that our focus on our operating margins is essential to our continued success in the title insurance business. Regardless of the business cycle in which we may be operating, we seek to continue to evaluate and manage our cost structure and make appropriate adjustments where economic conditions dictate. This continual focus on our cost structure helps us to better maintain our operating margins.
Acquisitions, Dispositions, Minority Owned Operating Subsidiaries and Financings
Acquisitions have been an important part of our growth strategy. On an ongoing basis, with assistance from our advisors, we actively evaluate possible transactions, such as acquisitions and dispositions of business units and operating assets and business combination transactions.
In the future, we may seek to sell certain investments or other assets to increase our liquidity. Further, our management has stated that we may make acquisitions in lines of business that are not directly tied to or synergistic with our core operating segments. In the past we have obtained majority and minority investments in entities and securities where we see the potential to achieve above market returns. Fundamentally our goal is to acquire quality companies that are well-positioned in their respective industries, run by best in class management teams in industries that have attractive organic and acquired growth opportunities. We leverage our operational expertise and track record of growing industry leading companies and also our active interaction with the acquired company's management directly or through our board of directors, to ultimately provide value for our shareholders.
There can be no assurance that any suitable opportunities will arise or that any particular transaction will be completed. We have made a number of acquisitions over the past three years to strengthen and expand our service offerings and customer base in our various businesses, and to expand into other businesses or where we otherwise saw value.
Black Knight and ServiceLink
On January 2, 2014, we completed the purchase of Lender Processing Services, Inc. ("LPS"). The purchase consideration paid was $37.14 per share, of which $28.10 per share was paid in cash and the remaining $9.04 was paid in FNF common shares. The purchase consideration represented an exchange ratio of 0.28742 per share of LPS common stock. Total consideration paid for LPS was $3.4 billion, which consisted of $2,535 million in cash and $836 million in FNF common stock. In order to pay the stock component of the consideration, we issued 25,920,078 shares to the former LPS shareholders.
Subsequent to our announcement of the LPS acquisition, we formed a wholly-owned subsidiary, Black Knight Financial Services, Inc. (now known as Black Knight Holdings, Inc., "Black Knight"). Black Knight is the mortgage and finance industries' leading provider of integrated technology, data and analytics solutions, and transaction services. Black Knight has two operating segments, ServiceLink Holdings, LLC ("ServiceLink") and Black Knight Financial Services, LLC ("BKFS"). We retained a 65% ownership interest in each of the subsidiaries and issued the remaining 35% ownership interest to funds affiliated with Thomas H. Lee Partners, and certain related entities on January 3, 2014. Black Knight, through ServiceLink and BKFS, now owns and operates the former LPS businesses and our ServiceLink business. Fidelity National Title Group, BKFS and ServiceLink will be our core operating subsidiaries in the future.
Black Knight Financial Services
Our Black Knight Financial Services segment offers technology and data and analytics services through leading software systems and information solutions that facilitate and automate many of the business processes across the life cycle of a mortgage. Our customers use our technology and services to reduce their operating costs, improve their customer service and enhance the quality and consistency of various aspects of their mortgage servicing. We continually work with our customers to customize and integrate our software and services in order to assist them in achieving the value proposition that we offer to them.
Our principal technology solutions are software applications provided to mortgage lenders and other lending institutions, together with related support and services. Our technology solutions primarily consist of mortgage processing and workflow management software applications. The long term nature of most of our contracts in this business provides us with substantial recurring revenues. Our revenues from servicing technology are generally based on the number of active mortgages on our mortgage servicing platform in a given period. Our other technology solutions include our origination and default technology, from which we generally earn revenues on a per transaction basis. Our data and analytics offerings primarily consist of our alternative valuation services, real estate and mortgage data, modeling and forecasting and analytical tools.
ServiceLink
Our ServiceLink segment offers customized outsourced business process and information solutions. We work with our customers to set specific parameters regarding the services they require, and where practicable, provide a single point of contact with us for these services.
The ServiceLink segment consists of our origination services, valuation services and our default services. Our origination services are provided to mortgage lenders to support many of the business processes necessary to originate a mortgage loan. Each of these services is provided through a centralized delivery channel in accordance with a lender’s specific requirements, regardless of the geographic location of the borrower or property. Our valuation services include providing traditional property appraisals

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for the origination market and for assets in default as well as providing appraisal management services. Our default services are provided to national lenders, loan servicers and other real estate professionals to enable them to better manage some or all of the business processes necessary to take a loan and the underlying property through the default, foreclosure and disposition process. 
Portfolio Company Investments
Through our portfolio company investments we actively manage a group of companies and investments with a net asset value of approximately $1.2 billion. Our portfolio company investments primarily consist of our majority ownership positions in Remy, ABRH, J. Alexander's, and Digital Insurance and our 32% minority investment in Ceridian. On January 31, 2014 we announced the future formation of a new tracking stock for Fidelity National Financial Ventures (“FNFV”), and the portfolio company investments will comprise FNFV in the future.
Remy
During the third quarter of 2012, we acquired 1.5 million additional shares of Remy, increasing our ownership interest to 16.3 million shares or 51% of Remy's total outstanding common shares. As a result of this acquisition we began to consolidate the results of Remy effective August 14, 2012. We previously held a 47% ownership interest in Remy. Total consideration paid for the additional 1.5 million shares was $31 million and cash acquired upon consolidation of Remy was $96 million.
Remy's strategy is to be the leading global manufacturer and remanufacturer of starters and alternators, yielding superior financial returns, as well as seeking to be a leading participant in the growing production of hybrid electric motors and to utilize their distribution network to supply complementary aftermarket products. We believe there are significant opportunities for future growth in this industry.
Remy's strategies for capitalizing on these opportunities include the following:
Building on market-leading positions in commercial vehicle products by producing durable, high-output starters and alternators for commercial vehicles in both original equipment ("OE") and aftermarket.
Commitment to expanding manufacturing in growth markets in Asia and South America.    
Continue to invest in hybrid electric motors for commercial vehicles.
Continue to leverage the benefits of having an OE and aftermarket presence, seeking to provide its aftermarket customers with new products faster than competitors and providing its OE business with useful knowledge regarding long-term product performance and durability.
Continue to provide value-added services that enhance customer performance, including category management services that strengthen its customer relationships, support customer growth and improve product category profitability.
Selectively pursue strategic partnerships and acquisitions that leverage its core competencies.
On January 13, 2014, Remy announced that it acquired substantially all of the assets of United Starters and Alternators Industries, Inc. ("USA Industries") pursuant to the terms and conditions of the Asset Purchase Agreement, effective as of January 13, 2014. USA Industries is a leading worldwide distributor of premium quality re-manufactured and new alternators, starters, constant velocity axles and disc brake calipers for the light-duty aftermarket. Total consideration paid was $41million.
Restaurant Group
On February 25, 2013, we formed J. Alexander's, a restaurant company which is focused on the upscale-casual dining segment. J. Alexander's consists of thirty J. Alexander's locations and ten Stoney River locations. ABRH contributed the ten Stoney River locations to J. Alexander's for an approximate 28% ownership interest in the new company, giving us an overall 87% ownership interest in J. Alexander's. The operations of J. Alexander's are consolidated in our existing Restaurant Group segment. Previously, in September 2012 we purchased all of the outstanding common stock of J. Alexander's Corporation for total consideration of $72 million in cash, net of cash acquired of $7 million.
On April 9, 2012, we successfully closed a tender offer for the outstanding common stock of O'Charley's Inc. ("O'Charley's"). We have consolidated the results of O'Charley's as of April 9, 2012. On May 11, 2012, we merged O'Charley's with our investment in ABRH in exchange for an increase in our ownership position in ABRH from 45% to 55%. As of December 31, 2013, there were 312 company-owned restaurants in the O'Charley's group of companies and 214 company-owned restaurants in the ABRH group of companies. Total consideration paid for O'Charley's was $122 million in cash, net of cash acquired of $35 million. We consolidated the operations of ABRH with the O'Charley's group of companies, beginning on May 11, 2012.
Our restaurant operations are focused in the family dining, casual dining and upscale-casual dining segments. The Restaurant Group's strategy is to achieve long-term profit growth and drive increases in same store sales and guest counts. We have a highly experienced management team that is focused on enhancing the guest experience at our restaurants and building team member engagement. We also utilize a shared service platform that takes advantage of the combined synergies of our operating companies to provide purchasing power and other shared service functions. We expect to continue to maintain a strong balance sheet for our Restaurant Group to support future acquisitions and to provide stability in all operating environments.
On December 31, 2012, we acquired Digital Insurance. Total consideration paid was $98 million in cash, net of cash acquired

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of $3 million. We have consolidated the operations of Digital Insurance as of December 31, 2012. Digital Insurance is a leading employee benefits platform specializing in health insurance distribution and benefits management for small and mid-sized businesses. The operations of Digital Insurance are included in our Portfolio Company Investments.
On May 1, 2012, we completed the sale of an 85% interest in our remaining subsidiaries that write personal lines insurance to WT Holdings, Inc. for $120 million. Accordingly, the results of this business through the date of sale (which we refer to as our "at-risk" insurance business) for all periods presented are reflected in the Consolidated Statements of Earnings as discontinued operations. The at-risk insurance business sale resulted in a pre-tax loss of $15 million, which was recorded in the fourth quarter of 2011.
Title Insurance
Market for title insurance.  According to Demotech Performance of Title Insurance Companies 2013 Edition, an annual compilation of financial information from the title insurance industry that is published by Demotech Inc., an independent firm ("Demotech"), total operating income for the entire U.S. title insurance industry has decreased from its highest at $17.8 billion in 2005 to $12.2 billion in 2012. The size of the industry is closely tied to various macroeconomic factors, including, but not limited to, growth in the gross domestic product, inflation, unemployment, the availability of credit, consumer confidence, interest rates, and sales volumes and prices for new and existing homes, as well as the volume of refinancing of previously issued mortgages.
Most real estate transactions consummated in the U.S. require the use of title insurance by a lending institution before the transaction can be completed. Generally, revenues from title insurance policies are directly correlated with the value of the property underlying the title policy, and appreciation or depreciation in the overall value of the real estate market are major factors in total industry revenues. Industry revenues are also driven by factors affecting the volume of real estate closings, such as the state of the economy, the availability of mortgage funding, and changes in interest rates, which affect demand for new mortgage loans and refinancing transactions. Both the volume and the average price of residential real estate transactions declined from 2007-2011. Beginning in 2008 and continuing through 2011, the mortgage delinquency and default rates caused negative operating results at a number of banks and financial institutions. Multiple banks failed during this time, reducing the capacity of the mortgage industry to make loans. Since this time, lenders have tightened their underwriting standards which has made it more difficult for buyers to qualify for new loans. However, during this same period, interest rates declined to historically low levels, which spurred higher refinance activity in the period 2009 through 2012. During 2013 refinance activity declined; however, we experienced an increase in the purchase volume and average price of residential real estate. Our revenues in future periods will continue to be subject to these and other factors which are beyond our control and, as a result, are likely to fluctuate.
 The U.S. title insurance industry is concentrated among a handful of industry participants. According to Demotech, the top four title insurance groups accounted for 86% of net premiums written in 2012. Approximately 30 independent title insurance companies accounted for the remaining 14% of net premiums written in 2012. In December 2008, we acquired LandAmerica Financial Group’s two principal title insurance underwriters, Commonwealth Land Title Insurance Company and Lawyers Title Insurance Corporation, and in January 2014 we acquired National Title Insurance of New York, Inc. as part of the acquisition of LPS. Consolidation has created opportunities for increased financial and operating efficiencies for the industry’s largest participants and should continue to drive profitability and market share in the industry.
Title Insurance Policies.  Generally, real estate buyers and mortgage lenders purchase title insurance to insure good and marketable title to real estate and priority of lien. A brief generalized description of the process of issuing a title insurance policy is as follows:
The customer, typically a real estate salesperson or broker, escrow agent, attorney or lender, places an order for a title policy.
Company personnel note the specifics of the title policy order and place a request with the title company or its agents for a preliminary report or commitment.
After the relevant historical data on the property is compiled, the title officer prepares a preliminary report that documents the current status of title to the property, any exclusions, exceptions and/or limitations that the title company might include in the policy, and specific issues that need to be addressed and resolved by the parties to the transaction before the title policy will be issued.
The preliminary report is circulated to all the parties for satisfaction of any specific issues.
After the specific issues identified in the preliminary report are satisfied, an escrow agent closes the transaction in accordance with the instructions of the parties and the title company’s conditions.
Once the transaction is closed and all monies have been released, the title company issues a title insurance policy.
In a real estate transaction financed with a mortgage, virtually all real property mortgage lenders require their borrowers to obtain a title insurance policy at the time a mortgage loan is made. This lender’s policy insures the lender against any defect affecting the priority of the mortgage in an amount equal to the outstanding balance of the related mortgage loan. An owner’s policy is typically also issued, insuring the buyer against defects in title in an amount equal to the purchase price. In a refinancing

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transaction, only a lender’s policy is generally purchased because ownership of the property has not changed. In the case of an all-cash real estate purchase, no lender’s policy is issued but typically an owner’s title policy is issued.
Title insurance premiums paid in connection with a title insurance policy are based on (and typically are a percentage of) either the amount of the mortgage loan or the purchase price of the property insured. Applicable state insurance regulations or regulatory practices may limit the maximum, or in some cases the minimum, premium that can be charged on a policy. Title insurance premiums are due in full at the closing of the real estate transaction. A lender’s policy generally terminates upon the refinancing or resale of the property.
The amount of the insured risk or “face amount” of insurance under a title insurance policy is generally equal to either the amount of the loan secured by the property or the purchase price of the property. The title insurer is also responsible for the cost of defending the insured title against covered claims. The insurer’s actual exposure at any given time, however, generally is less than the total face amount of policies outstanding because the coverage of a lender’s policy is reduced and eventually terminated as a result of payment of the mortgage loan. A title insurer also generally does not know when a property has been sold or refinanced except when it issues the replacement coverage. Because of these factors, the total liability of a title underwriter on outstanding policies cannot be precisely determined.
Title insurance companies typically issue title insurance policies directly through branch offices or through affiliated title agencies, or indirectly through independent third party agencies unaffiliated with the title insurance company. Where the policy is issued through a branch or wholly-owned subsidiary agency operation, the title insurance company typically performs or directs the title search, and the premiums collected are retained by the title company. Where the policy is issued through an independent agent, the agent generally performs the title search (in some areas searches are performed by approved attorneys), examines the title, collects the premium and retains a majority of the premium. The remainder of the premium is remitted to the title insurance company as compensation, part of which is for bearing the risk of loss in the event a claim is made under the policy. The percentage of the premium retained by an agent varies from region to region and is sometimes regulated by the states. The title insurance company is obligated to pay title claims in accordance with the terms of its policies, regardless of whether the title insurance company issues policies through its direct operations or through independent agents.
 Prior to issuing policies, title insurers and their agents attempt to reduce the risk of future claim losses by accurately performing title searches and examinations. A title insurance company’s predominant expense relates to such searches and examinations, the preparation of preliminary title reports, policies or commitments, the maintenance of "title plants,” which are indexed compilations of public records, maps and other relevant historical documents, and the facilitation and closing of real estate transactions. Claim losses generally result from errors made in the title search and examination process, from hidden defects such as fraud, forgery, incapacity, or missing heirs of the property, and from closing related errors.
Residential real estate business results from the construction, sale, resale and refinancing of residential properties, while commercial real estate business results from similar activities with respect to properties with a business or commercial use. Commercial real estate title insurance policies insure title to commercial real property, and generally involve higher coverage amounts and yield higher premiums. Residential real estate transaction volume is primarily affected by macroeconomic and seasonal factors while commercial real estate transaction volume is affected primarily by fluctuations in local supply and demand conditions for commercial space.
Direct and Agency Operations.  We provide title insurance services through our direct operations and through independent title insurance agents who issue title policies on behalf of our title insurance companies. Our title insurance companies determine the terms and conditions upon which they will insure title to the real property according to their underwriting standards, policies and procedures.
Direct Operations.  In our direct operations, the title insurer issues the title insurance policy and retains the entire premium paid in connection with the transaction. Our direct operations provide the following benefits:
higher margins because we retain the entire premium from each transaction instead of paying a commission to an independent agent;
continuity of service levels to a broad range of customers; and
additional sources of income through escrow and closing services.
We have approximately 1,200 offices throughout the U.S. primarily providing residential real estate title insurance. We continuously monitor the number of direct offices to make sure that it remains in line with our strategy and the current economic environment. Our commercial real estate title insurance business is operated almost exclusively through our direct operations. We maintain direct operations for our commercial title insurance business in all the major real estate markets including Atlanta, Boston, Chicago, Dallas, Houston, Los Angeles, New York, Philadelphia, Phoenix, Seattle and Washington D.C.
Agency Operations.  In our agency operations, the search and examination function is performed by an independent agent or the agent may purchase the search and examination from us. In either case, the agent is responsible to ensure that the search and examination is completed. The agent thus retains the majority of the title premium collected, with the balance remitted to the title

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underwriter for bearing the risk of loss in the event that a claim is made under the title insurance policy. Independent agents may select among several title underwriters based upon their relationship with the underwriter, the amount of the premium “split” offered by the underwriter, the overall terms and conditions of the agency agreement and the scope of services offered to the agent. Premium splits vary by geographic region, and in some states are fixed by insurance regulatory requirements. Our relationship with each agent is governed by an agency agreement defining how the agent issues a title insurance policy on our behalf. The agency agreement also sets forth the agent’s liability to us for policy losses attributable to the agent’s errors. An agency agreement is usually terminable without cause upon 30 days notice or immediately for cause. In determining whether to engage or retain an independent agent, we consider the agent’s experience, financial condition and loss history. For each agent with whom we enter into an agency agreement, we maintain financial and loss experience records. We also conduct periodic audits of our agents and strategically manage the number of agents with which we transact business in an effort to reduce future expenses and manage risks. As of December 31, 2013, we transact business with approximately 5,000 agents.
 Fees and Premiums.  One method of analyzing our business is to examine the level of premiums generated by direct and agency operations.
The following table presents the percentages of our title insurance premiums generated by direct and agency operations:
 
Year Ended December 31,
 
2013
 
2012
 
2011
 
Amount
 
%
 
Amount
 
%
 
Amount
 
%
 
(Dollars in millions)
Direct
$
1,800

 
43.4
%
 
$
1,732

 
45.2
%
 
$
1,427

 
43.8
%
Agency
2,352

 
56.6

 
2,101

 
54.8

 
1,830

 
56.2

     Total title insurance premiums
$
4,152

 
100.0
%
 
$
3,833

 
100.0
%
 
$
3,257

 
100.0
%
The premium for title insurance is due in full when the real estate transaction is closed. We recognize title insurance premium revenues from direct operations upon the closing of the transaction, whereas premium revenues from agency operations include an accrual based on estimates of the volume of transactions that have closed in a particular period for which premiums have not yet been reported to us. The accrual for agency premiums is necessary because of the lag between the closing of these transactions and the reporting of these policies to us by the agent, and is based on estimates utilizing historical information.
Escrow, Title-Related and Other Fees.  In addition to fees for underwriting title insurance policies, we derive a significant amount of our revenues from escrow and other title-related services including collection and trust activities, trustee's sales guarantees, recordings and reconveyances, and home warranty services. The escrow and other services provided by us include all of those typically required in connection with residential and commercial real estate purchases and refinance activities. Escrow, title-related and other fees represented approximately 20.3%, 23.4%, and 29.0% of our revenues in 2013, 2012, and 2011, respectively.
Sales and Marketing. We market and distribute our title and escrow products and services to customers in the residential and commercial market sectors of the real estate industry through customer solicitation by sales personnel. Although in many instances the individual homeowner is the beneficiary of a title insurance policy, we do not focus our marketing efforts on the homeowner. We actively encourage our sales personnel to develop new business relationships with persons in the real estate community, such as real estate sales agents and brokers, financial institutions, independent escrow companies and title agents, real estate developers, mortgage brokers and attorneys who order title insurance policies for their clients. While our smaller, local clients remain important, large customers, such as national residential mortgage lenders, real estate investment trusts and developers are an important part of our business. The buying criteria of locally based clients differ from those of large, geographically diverse customers in that the former tend to emphasize personal relationships and ease of transaction execution, while the latter generally place more emphasis on consistent product delivery across diverse geographical regions and the ability of service providers to meet their information systems requirements for electronic product delivery.
Claims. An important part of our operations is the handling of title and escrow claims. We employ a large staff of attorneys in our claims department. Our claims processing centers are located in Omaha, Nebraska and Jacksonville, Florida. In-house claims counsel are also located in other parts of the country.
Claims result from a wide range of causes. These causes generally include, but are not limited to, search and exam errors, forgeries, incorrect legal descriptions, signature and notary errors, unrecorded liens, mechanics’ liens, the failure to pay off existing liens, mortgage lending fraud, mishandling or theft of settlement funds (including independent agency theft), and mistakes in the escrow process. Under our policies, we are required to defend insureds when covered claims are filed against their interest in the property. Some claimants seek damages in excess of policy limits. Those claims are based on various legal theories, including in some cases allegations of negligence or an intentional tort. We occasionally incur losses in excess of policy limits. Experience

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shows that most policy claims and claim payments are made in the first five years after the policy has been issued, although claims may also be reported and paid many years later.
Title losses due to independent agency defalcations typically occur when the independent agency misappropriates funds from escrow accounts under its control. Such losses are usually discovered when the independent agency fails to pay off an outstanding mortgage loan at closing (or immediately thereafter) from the proceeds of the new loan. Once the previous lender determines that its loan has not been paid off timely, it will file a claim against the title insurer.
Claims can be complex, vary greatly in dollar amounts and are affected by economic and market conditions and the legal environment existing at the time claims are processed. In our commercial title business, we may issue polices with face amounts well in excess of $100 million, and from time to time claims are submitted with respect to large policies. We believe we are appropriately reserved with respect to all claims (large and small) that we currently face. Occasionally we experience large losses from title policies that have been issued or from our escrow operations, or overall worsening loss payment experience, which require us to increase our title loss reserves. These events are unpredictable and adversely affect our earnings. Claims can result in litigation in which we may represent our insured and/or ourselves. We consider this type of litigation to be an ordinary course aspect of the conduct of our business.
Reinsurance and Coinsurance.  We limit our maximum loss exposure by reinsuring risks with other insurers under excess of loss and case-by-case (“facultative”) reinsurance agreements. Reinsurance agreements generally provide that the reinsurer is liable for loss and loss adjustment expense payments exceeding the amount retained by the ceding company. However, the ceding company remains primarily liable to the insured whether or not the reinsurer is able to meet its contractual obligations. Facultative reinsurance agreements are entered into with other title insurers when the transaction to be insured will exceed state statutory or self-imposed limits. Excess of loss reinsurance protects us from a loss from a single loss occurrence. Through March 1, 2014, our excess of loss coverage is split into two tiers. The first tier provides coverage for residential and commercial transactions up to $100 million per loss occurrence, subject to a $20 million retention per loss. The second tier provides additional coverage for commercial transactions in excess of $100 million of loss per occurrence up to $400 million per occurrence, with the Company participating at approximately 20%. We are currently in process of negotiating the terms and conditions of our 2014 - 2015 coverages.
 In addition to reinsurance, we carry errors and omissions insurance and fidelity bond coverage, each of which can provide protection to us in the event of certain types of losses that can occur in our businesses.
Our policy is to be selective in choosing our reinsurers, seeking only those companies that we consider to be financially stable and adequately capitalized. In an effort to minimize exposure to the insolvency of a reinsurer, we periodically review the financial condition of our reinsurers.
We also use coinsurance in our commercial title business to provide coverage in amounts greater than we would be willing or able to provide individually. In coinsurance transactions, each individual underwriting company issues a separate policy and assumes a portion of the overall total risk. As a coinsurer we are only liable for the portion of the risk we assume.
We also earn a small amount of additional income, which is reflected in our direct premiums, by assuming reinsurance for certain risks of other title insurers.
Competition.  Competition in the title insurance industry is based primarily on expertise, service and price. In addition, the financial strength of the insurer has become an increasingly important factor in decisions relating to the purchase of title insurance, particularly in multi-state transactions and in situations involving real estate-related investment vehicles such as real estate investment trusts and real estate mortgage investment conduits. The number and size of competing companies varies in the different geographic areas in which we conduct our business. In our principal markets, competitors include other major title underwriters such as First American Financial Corporation, Old Republic International Corporation and Stewart Information Services Corporation, as well as numerous smaller title insurance companies, underwritten title companies and independent agency operations at the regional and local level. Independent agency operations accounted for 56.6% of our total title insurance premiums in 2013. Several of the smaller competitors have closed their operations in the past few years as a result of the significant decrease in activity in the residential real estate market. The addition or removal of regulatory barriers might result in changes to competition in the title insurance business. New competitors may include diversified financial services companies that have greater financial resources than we do and possess other competitive advantages. Competition among the major title insurance companies, expansion by smaller regional companies and any new entrants with alternative products could affect our business operations and financial condition.
 Regulation. Our insurance subsidiaries, including title insurers, underwritten title companies and insurance agencies, are subject to extensive regulation under applicable state laws. Each of the insurers is subject to a holding company act in its state of domicile, which regulates, among other matters, the ability to pay dividends and enter into transactions with affiliates. The laws of most states in which we transact business establish supervisory agencies with broad administrative powers relating to issuing and revoking licenses to transact business, regulating trade practices, licensing agents, approving policy forms, accounting practices, financial practices, establishing reserve and capital and surplus as regards policyholders (“capital and surplus”) requirements,

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defining suitable investments for reserves and capital and surplus and approving rate schedules. The process of state regulation of changes in rates ranges from states which set rates, to states where individual companies or associations of companies prepare rate filings which are submitted for approval, to a few states in which rate changes do not need to be filed for approval.
Since we are governed by both state and federal governments and the applicable insurance laws and regulations are constantly subject to change, it is not possible to predict the potential effects on our insurance operations of any laws or regulations that may become more restrictive in the future or if new restrictive laws will be enacted.
 Pursuant to statutory accounting requirements of the various states in which our title insurers are domiciled, these insurers must defer a portion of premiums as an unearned premium reserve for the protection of policyholders (in addition to their reserves for known claims) and must maintain qualified assets in an amount equal to the statutory requirements. The level of unearned premium reserve required to be maintained at any time is determined by a statutory formula based upon either the age, number of policies, and dollar amount of policy liabilities underwritten, or the age and dollar amount of statutory premiums written. As of December 31, 2013, the combined statutory unearned premium reserve required and reported for our title insurers was $1,734 million. In addition to statutory unearned premium reserves and reserves for known claims, each of our insurers maintains surplus funds for policyholder protection and business operations.
Each of our insurance subsidiaries is regulated by the insurance regulatory authority in its respective state of domicile, as well as that of each state in which it is licensed. The insurance commissioners of their respective states of domicile are the primary regulators of our insurance subsidiaries. Each of the insurers is subject to periodic regulatory financial examination by regulatory authorities.
Under the statutes governing insurance holding companies in most states, insurers may not enter into certain transactions, including sales, reinsurance agreements and service or management contracts, with their affiliates unless the regulatory authority of the insurer’s state of domicile has received notice at least 30 days prior to the intended effective date of such transaction and has not objected to, or has approved, the transaction within the 30-day period.
 As a holding company with no significant business operations of our own, we depend on dividends or other distributions from our subsidiaries as the principal source of cash to meet our obligations, including the payment of interest on and repayment of principal of any debt obligations, and to pay any dividends to our stockholders. The payment of dividends or other distributions to us by our insurers is regulated by the insurance laws and regulations of their respective states of domicile. In general, an insurance company subsidiary may not pay an “extraordinary” dividend or distribution unless the applicable insurance regulator has received notice of the intended payment at least 30 days prior to payment and has not objected to or has approved the payment within the 30-day period. In general, an “extraordinary” dividend or distribution is statutorily defined as a dividend or distribution that, together with other dividends and distributions made within the preceding 12 months, exceeds the greater of:
10% of the insurer’s statutory surplus as of the immediately prior year end; or
the statutory net income of the insurer during the prior calendar year.
The laws and regulations of some jurisdictions also prohibit an insurer from declaring or paying a dividend except out of its earned surplus or require the insurer to obtain prior regulatory approval. During 2014, our directly owned title insurers can pay dividends or make distributions to us of approximately $308 million without prior regulatory approval; however, insurance regulators have the authority to prohibit the payment of ordinary dividends or other payments by our title insurers to us (such as a payment under a tax sharing agreement or for employee or other services) if they determine that such payment could be adverse to our policyholders. There are no restrictions on our retained earnings regarding our ability to pay dividends to shareholders.
The combined statutory capital and surplus of our title insurers was approximately $1,409 million and $1,381 million as of December 31, 2013 and 2012, respectively. The combined statutory earnings (loss) of our title insurers were $352 million, $281 million, and $151 million for the years ended December 31, 2013, 2012, and 2011, respectively.
As a condition to continued authority to underwrite policies in the states in which our insurers conduct their business, they are required to pay certain fees and file information regarding their officers, directors and financial condition.
 Pursuant to statutory requirements of the various states in which our insurers are domiciled, such insurers must maintain certain levels of minimum capital and surplus. Required levels of minimum capital and surplus are not significant to the insurers individually or in the aggregate. Each of our insurers has complied with the minimum statutory requirements as of December 31, 2013.
 Our underwritten title companies are also subject to certain regulation by insurance regulatory or banking authorities, primarily relating to minimum net worth. Minimum net worth requirements for each underwritten title company is less than $1 million. These companies were in compliance with their respective minimum net worth requirements at December 31, 2013.
 From time to time we receive inquiries and requests for information from state insurance departments, attorneys general and other regulatory agencies about various matters relating to our business. Sometimes these take the form of civil investigative demands or subpoenas. We cooperate with all such inquiries and we have responded to or are currently responding to inquiries from multiple governmental agencies. Also, regulators and courts have been dealing with issues arising from foreclosures and

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related processes and documentation. Various governmental entities are studying the title insurance product, market, pricing, and business practices, and potential regulatory and legislative changes, which may materially affect our business and operations. From time to time, we are assessed fines for violations of regulations or other matters or enter into settlements with such authorities which may require us to pay fines or claims or take other actions. For further discussion, see item 3, Legal Proceedings.
Before a person can acquire control of a U.S. insurance company, prior written approval must be obtained from the insurance commissioner of the state in which the insurer is domiciled. Prior to granting approval of an application to acquire control of a domestic insurer, the state insurance commissioner will consider such factors as the financial strength of the applicant, the integrity and management of the applicant’s Board of Directors and executive officers, the acquirer’s plans for the insurer’s Board of Directors and executive officers, the acquirer’s plans for the future operations of the domestic insurer and any anti-competitive results that may arise from the consummation of the acquisition of control. Generally, state statutes provide that control over a domestic insurer is presumed to exist if any person, directly or indirectly, owns, controls, holds with the power to vote, or holds proxies representing 10% or more of the voting securities of the domestic insurer. Because a person acquiring 10% or more of our common shares would indirectly control the same percentage of the stock of our insurers, the insurance change of control laws would likely apply to such a transaction.
 The National Association of Insurance Commissioners ("NAIC") has adopted an instruction requiring an annual certification of reserve adequacy by a qualified actuary. Because all of the states in which our title insurers are domiciled require adherence to NAIC filing procedures, each such insurer, unless it qualifies for an exemption, must file an actuarial opinion with respect to the adequacy of its reserves.
Ratings
Our title insurance underwriters are regularly assigned ratings by independent agencies designed to indicate their financial condition and/or claims paying ability. The rating agencies determine ratings by quantitatively and qualitatively analyzing financial data and other information. Our title subsidiaries include Alamo Title, Chicago Title, Commonwealth Land Title, and Fidelity National Title. Standard & Poor’s Ratings Group (“S&P”), Moody’s Investors Service (“Moody’s”), and A. M. Best Company ("A.M. Best") provide ratings for the entire FNF family of companies as a whole as follows:
 
 
S&P
 
Moody’s
 
A.M. Best
FNF family of companies
A-
 
A3
 
A-
The relative position of each of our ratings among the ratings scale assigned by each rating agency is as follows:
An S&P "A-" rating is the eighth highest rating of 25 ratings for S&P. S&P states that an “A-” rating means that, in its opinion, the insurer is highly likely to have the ability to meet its financial obligations.
A Moody's "A3" rating is the twelfth highest rating of 33 ratings for Moody's. Moody's states that insurance companies rated “A3” offer good financial security.
An A.M. Best "A-" rating is the fourth highest rating of 15 ratings for A.M. Best. A.M. Best states that its “A- (Excellent)” rating is assigned to those companies that have, in its opinion, an excellent ability to meet their ongoing obligations to policyholders.
Demotech provides financial strength/stability ratings for each of our principal title insurance underwriters individually, as follows: 
Alamo Title Insurance
A’
Chicago Title Insurance Company
A”
Commonwealth Land Title Insurance Company
A
Fidelity National Title Insurance Company
A’
 Demotech states that its ratings of “A´´ (A double prime)” and “A´ (A prime)” reflect its opinion that, regardless of the severity of a general economic downturn or deterioration in the insurance cycle, the insurers assigned either of those ratings possess “Unsurpassed” financial stability related to maintaining positive surplus as regards policyholders. The “A” rating reflects Demotech's opinion that, regardless of the severity of a general economic downturn or deterioration in the insurance cycle, the insurers assigned such rating possess “Exceptional” financial stability related to maintaining positive surplus as regards policyholders. The “A´´ (A double prime)”, “A´ (A prime)” and "A" ratings are the three highest ratings of Demotech's five ratings.
The ratings of S&P, Moody’s, A.M. Best, and Demotech described above are not designed to be, and do not serve as, measures of protection or valuation offered to investors. These financial strength ratings should not be relied on with respect to making an investment in our securities. See “Item 1A. Risk Factors — If the rating agencies downgrade our Company, our results of operations and competitive position in the title insurance industry may suffer” for further information.


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Intellectual Property
We rely on a combination of contractual restrictions, internal security practices, and copyright and trade secret law to establish and protect our software, technology, and expertise across our businesses. Further, we have developed a number of brands that have accumulated substantial goodwill in the marketplace, and we rely on trademark law to protect our rights in that area. We intend to continue our policy of taking all measures we deem necessary to protect our copyright, trade secret, and trademark rights. These legal protections and arrangements afford only limited protection of our proprietary rights, and there is no assurance that our competitors will not independently develop or license products, services, or capabilities that are substantially equivalent or superior to ours.
Technology and Research and Development
 As a national provider of real estate transaction products and services, we participate in an industry that is subject to significant regulatory requirements, frequent new product and service introductions, and evolving industry standards. We believe that our future success depends in part on our ability to anticipate industry changes and offer products and services that meet evolving industry standards. In connection with our title segment service offerings, we are continuing to deploy new information system technologies to our direct and agency operations. We continue to improve the process of ordering title and escrow services and improve the delivery of our products to our customers. In order to meet new regulatory requirements, we also continue to expand our data collection and reporting abilities.
Remy believes that a continued focus on research, development and engineering activities is critical to maintaining their leadership position in their industry and meeting their long-term objectives. As a result, Remy continues their commitment to invest in facilities and infrastructure in order to support new business awards and achieve their long-term growth plans.
Investment Policies and Investment Portfolio
 Our investment policy is designed to maximize total return through investment income and capital appreciation consistent with moderate risk of principal, while providing adequate liquidity. Our insurance subsidiaries, including title insurers, underwritten title companies and insurance agencies, are subject to extensive regulation under applicable state laws. The various states in which we operate our underwriters regulate the types of assets that qualify for purposes of capital, surplus, and statutory unearned premium reserves. Our investment policy specifically limits duration and non-investment grade allocations in the core fixed-income portfolio. Maintaining shorter durations on the investment portfolio allows for the mitigation of interest rate risk. Equity securities and preferred stock are utilized to take advantage of perceived value or for strategic purposes. Due to the magnitude of the investment portfolio in relation to our claims loss reserves, durations of investments are not specifically matched to the cash outflows required to pay claims.
As of December 31, 2013 and 2012, the carrying amount, which approximates the fair value, of total investments, excluding investments in unconsolidated affiliates, was $3.4 billion and $3.7 billion, respectively.
 We purchase investment grade fixed maturity securities, selected non-investment grade fixed maturity securities, preferred stock and equity securities. The securities in our portfolio are subject to economic conditions and normal market risks and uncertainties. 
The following table presents certain information regarding the investment ratings of our fixed maturity securities and preferred stock portfolio at December 31, 2013 and 2012:
 
December 31,
 
2013
 
2012
 
Amortized
 
% of
 
Fair
 
% of
 
Amortized
 
% of
 
Fair
 
% of
Rating(1)
Cost
 
Total
 
Value
 
Total
 
Cost
 
Total
 
Value
 
Total
 
(Dollars in millions)
Aaa/AAA
$
377

 
12.4
%
 
$
388

 
12.5
%
 
$
439

 
13.7
%
 
$
464

 
13.8
%
Aa/AA
668

 
22.0

 
690

 
22.2

 
1,005

 
31.4

 
1,054

 
31.4

A
1,032

 
34.0

 
1,056

 
34.0

 
799

 
24.9

 
843

 
25.1

Baa/BBB
787

 
25.9

 
803

 
25.8

 
722

 
22.5

 
758

 
22.6

Ba/BB/B
87

 
2.9

 
85

 
2.7

 
200

 
6.2

 
203

 
6.1

Lower
84

 
2.8

 
87

 
2.8

 
14

 
0.4

 
8

 
0.2

Other (2)
1

 

 
1

 

 
28

 
0.9

 
27

 
0.8

 
$
3,036

 
100.0
%
 
$
3,110

 
100.0
%
 
$
3,207

 
100.0
%
 
$
3,357

 
100.0
%
______________________________________
(1)
Ratings as assigned by Moody’s Investors Service or Standard & Poor’s Ratings Group if a Moody's rating is unavailable.

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(2)
This category is composed of unrated securities.
The following table presents certain information regarding contractual maturities of our fixed maturity securities:
 
December 31, 2013
 
Amortized
 
% of
 
Fair
 
% of
Maturity
Cost
 
Total
 
Value
 
Total
 
(Dollars in millions)
One year or less
$
363

 
13
%
 
$
368

 
12
%
After one year through five years
1,845

 
64

 
1,906

 
65

After five years through ten years
559

 
19

 
571

 
19

After ten years
5

 

 
5

 

Mortgage-backed/asset-backed securities
105

 
4

 
109

 
4

 
$
2,877

 
100
%
 
$
2,959

 
100
%
At December 31, 2013, all of our mortgage-backed and asset-backed securities are rated AAA by Moody's. The mortgage-backed and asset-backed securities are made up of $77 million of agency-backed mortgage-backed securities, $27 million of agency-backed collateralized mortgage obligations, and $5 million in asset-backed securities.
 Expected maturities may differ from contractual maturities because certain borrowers have the right to call or prepay obligations with or without call or prepayment penalties. Because of the potential for prepayment on mortgage-backed and asset-backed securities, they are not categorized by contractual maturity. Fixed maturity securities with an amortized cost of $1,572 million and a fair value of $1,606 million were callable or had make-whole call provisions at December 31, 2013.
Our equity securities at December 31, 2013 and 2012 consisted of investments at a cost basis of $71 million and $103 million, respectively, and fair value of $136 million and $138 million, respectively. The balance of equity securities at December 31, 2013 and 2012 contains an investment in Fidelity National Information Services ("FIS") stock, a related party. During the fourth quarter of 2013, we sold 300,000 shares for a realized gain of $11 million. As of December 31, 2013 we owned 1,303,860 shares of FIS stock and the fair value of our investment in FIS stock was $70 million and $56 million as of December 31, 2013 and 2012, respectively.
At December 31, 2013 and 2012, we also held $357 million and $392 million, respectively, in investments that are accounted for using the equity method of accounting, principally our ownership interests in Ceridian.
 As of December 31, 2013 and 2012, Other long-term investments included structured notes at a fair value of $38 million and $41 million, respectively, which were purchased in the third quarter of 2009. Also included in Other long-term investments were investments accounted for using the cost method of accounting of $124 million and $64 million, as of December 31, 2013 and 2012, respectively.
 Short-term investments, which consist primarily of commercial paper and money market instruments which have an original maturity of one year or less, are carried at amortized cost, which approximates fair value. As of December 31, 2013 and 2012, short-term investments amounted to $26 million and $62 million, respectively.
Our investment results for the years ended December 31, 2013, 2012 and 2011 were as follows:
 
 
December 31,
 
 
2013
 
2012
 
2011
 
 
(Dollars in millions)
Net investment income (1)
 
$
147

 
$
163

 
$
165

Average invested assets
 
$
3,627

 
$
3,698

 
$
3,792

Effective return on average invested assets
 
4.1
%
 
4.4
%
 
4.3
%
______________________________________
(1)
Net investment income as reported in our Consolidated Statements of Earnings has been adjusted in the presentation above to provide the tax equivalent yield on tax exempt investments.

Loss Reserves
 For information about our loss reserves, see Item 7. Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations — Critical Accounting Estimates.

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Geographic Operations
Our direct title operations are divided into approximately 150 profit centers. Each profit center processes title insurance transactions within its geographical area, which is usually identified by a county, a group of counties forming a region, or a state, depending on the management structure in that part of the country. We also transact title insurance business through a network of approximately 5,000 agents, primarily in those areas in which agents are the more prevalent title insurance provider. Substantially all of our revenues are generated in the United States.
The following table sets forth the approximate dollar and percentage volumes of our title insurance premium revenue by state:
 
Year Ended December 31,
 
2013
 
2012
 
2011
 
Amount
 
%
 
Amount
 
%
 
Amount
 
%
 
(Dollars in millions)
California
$
632

 
15.2
%
 
$
660

 
17.2
%
 
$
515

 
15.8
%
Texas
597

 
14.4

 
496

 
12.9

 
401

 
12.3

New York
305

 
7.4

 
282

 
7.4

 
263

 
8.1

Florida
316

 
7.6

 
255

 
6.6

 
212

 
6.5

Illinois
222

 
5.3

 
183

 
4.8

 
147

 
4.5

All others
2,080

 
50.1

 
1,957

 
51.1

 
1,719

 
52.8

Totals
$
4,152

 
100.0
%
 
$
3,833

 
100.0
%
 
$
3,257

 
100.0
%
Remy generates revenue in multiple geographic locations. Revenues are attributed to geographic locations based on the point of sale.
Auto parts revenue in our Remy segment by region was as follows:
 
2013
 
2012
United States
66.1
%
 
66.0
%
Asia Pacific
20.7
%
 
20.0
%
Europe
7.9
%
 
8.8
%
Other America
5.3
%
 
5.2
%
Total
100.0
%
 
100.0
%
Our Restaurant Group operates and franchises restaurants in 43 states throughout the United States. All of our Restaurant Group's revenues are generated in those states.
Employees
As of January 24, 2014, we had approximately 63,861 full-time equivalent employees, which includes 15,929 in our Fidelity National Title segment, 32,861 in our Restaurant Group segment, 6,605 in our Remy segment, 8,084 in Black Knight and 382 in our remaining segments. We monitor our staffing levels based on current economic activity. Except for approximately 3,700 of Remy's employees, none of our employees are subject to collective bargaining agreements. We believe that our relations with employees are generally good.
Financial Information by Operating Segment
For financial information by operating segment, see Note R of the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements.
 Statement Regarding Forward-Looking Information
 The statements contained in this Form 10-K or in our other documents or in oral presentations or other statements made by our management that are not purely historical are forward-looking statements within the meaning of Section 27A of the Securities Act of 1933 and Section 21E of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, including statements regarding our expectations, hopes, intentions, or strategies regarding the future. These statements relate to, among other things, future financial and operating results of the Company. In many cases, you can identify forward-looking statements by terminology such as “may,” “will,” “should,” “expect,” “plan,” “anticipate,” “believe,” “estimate,” “predict,” “potential,” or “continue,” or the negative of these terms and other comparable terminology. Actual results could differ materially from those anticipated in these statements as a result of a number of factors, including, but not limited to the following:
changes in general economic, business, and political conditions, including changes in the financial markets;

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the severity of our title insurance claims;
downgrade of our credit rating by rating agencies;
adverse changes in the level of real estate activity, which may be caused by, among other things, high or increasing interest rates, a limited supply of mortgage funding, increased mortgage defaults, or a weak U.S. economy;
compliance with extensive government regulation of our operating subsidiaries and adverse changes in applicable laws or regulations or in their application by regulators;
regulatory investigations of the title insurance industry;
loss of key personnel that could negatively affect our financial results and impair our operating abilities;
our business concentration in the State of California, the source of approximately 15.2% of our title insurance premiums;
our potential inability to find suitable acquisition candidates, as well as the risks associated with acquisitions in lines of business that will not necessarily be limited to our traditional areas of focus, or difficulties integrating acquisitions;
our dependence on distributions from our title insurance underwriters as our main source of cash flow;
competition from other title insurance companies; and
other risks detailed in "Risk Factors" below and elsewhere in this document and in our other filings with the SEC.
 We are not under any obligation (and expressly disclaim any such obligation) to update or alter our forward-looking statements, whether as a result of new information, future events or otherwise. You should carefully consider the possibility that actual results may differ materially from our forward-looking statements.
 Additional Information
 Our website address is www.fnf.com. We make available free of charge on or through our website our Annual Report on Form 10-K, Quarterly Reports on Form 10-Q, Current Reports on Form 8-K and all amendments to those reports filed or furnished pursuant to Section 13(a) or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, as soon as reasonably practicable after such material is electronically filed with or furnished to the Securities and Exchange Commission. However, the information found on our website is not part of this or any other report.
Item 1A.      Risk Factors
In addition to the normal risks of business, we are subject to significant risks and uncertainties, including those listed below and others described elsewhere in this Annual Report on Form 10-K. Any of the risks described herein could result in a significant or material adverse effect on our results of operations or financial condition.
General
If adverse changes in the levels of real estate activity occur, our revenues may decline.
Title insurance revenue is closely related to the level of real estate activity which includes sales, mortgage financing and mortgage refinancing. The levels of real estate activity are primarily affected by the average price of real estate sales, the availability of funds to finance purchases and mortgage interest rates.
We have found that residential real estate activity generally decreases in the following situations:
when mortgage interest rates are high or increasing;
when the mortgage funding supply is limited; and
when the United States economy is weak, including high unemployment levels.
Declines in the level of real estate activity or the average price of real estate sales are likely to adversely affect our title insurance revenues. The Mortgage Bankers Association's ("MBA") Mortgage Finance Forecast currently estimates an approximately $1.1 trillion mortgage origination market for 2014, which would be a decrease of 38.9% from 2013. The MBA forecasts that the 38.9% decrease will result almost entirely from decreased refinance activity. Our revenues in future periods will continue to be subject to these and other factors which are beyond our control and, as a result, are likely to fluctuate.
We have recorded goodwill as a result of prior acquisitions, and an economic downturn could cause these balances to become impaired, requiring write-downs that would reduce our operating income.
Goodwill aggregated approximately $1,901 million, or 18.1% of our total assets, as of December 31, 2013. Current accounting rules require that goodwill be assessed for impairment at least annually or whenever changes in circumstances indicate that the carrying amount may not be recoverable from estimated future cash flows. Factors that may be considered a change in circumstance indicating the carrying value of our intangible assets, including goodwill, may not be recoverable include, but are not limited to, significant underperformance relative to historical or projected future operating results, a significant decline in our stock price and market capitalization, and negative industry or economic trends. No goodwill impairment charge was recorded in 2013. However, if there is an economic downturn in the future, the carrying amount of our goodwill may no longer be recoverable, and we may be required to record an impairment charge, which would have a negative impact on our results of operations and financial condition. We will continue to monitor our market capitalization and the impact of the economy to determine if there is an impairment of goodwill in future periods.

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If economic and credit market conditions deteriorate, it could have a material adverse impact on our investment portfolio.
Our investment portfolio is exposed to economic and financial market risks, including changes in interest rates, credit markets and prices of marketable equity and fixed-income securities. Our investment policy is designed to maximize total return through investment income and capital appreciation consistent with moderate risk of principal, while providing adequate liquidity and complying with internal and regulatory guidelines. To achieve this objective, our marketable debt investments are primarily investment grade, liquid, fixed-income securities and money market instruments denominated in U.S. dollars. We make investments in certain equity securities and preferred stock in order to take advantage of perceived value and for strategic purposes. In the past, economic and credit market conditions have adversely affected the ability of some issuers of investment securities to repay their obligations and have affected the values of investment securities. If the carrying value of our investments exceeds the fair value, and the decline in fair value is deemed to be other-than-temporary, we will be required to write down the value of our investments, which could have a material negative impact on our results of operations and financial condition. We own a minority interest in Ceridian, a leading provider of global human capital management and payment solutions. If the fair value of this company were to decline below book value, we would be required to write down the value of our investment, which could have a material negative impact on our results of operations and financial condition. If this company were to experience significant negative volatility in its results of operations it would have a material adverse effect on our own results of operations due to our inclusion of our portion of its earnings in our results of operations.
If financial institutions at which we hold escrow funds fail, it could have a material adverse impact on our company.
We hold customers' assets in escrow at various financial institutions, pending completion of real estate transactions. These assets are maintained in segregated bank accounts and have not been included in the accompanying Consolidated Balance Sheets. We have a contingent liability relating to proper disposition of these balances for our customers, which amounted to $8.8 billion at December 31, 2013. Failure of one or more of these financial institutions may lead us to become liable for the funds owed to third parties and there is no guarantee that we would recover the funds deposited, whether through Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation coverage or otherwise.
If we experience changes in the rate or severity of title insurance claims, it may be necessary for us to record additional charges to our claim loss reserve. This may result in lower net earnings and the potential for earnings volatility.
By their nature, claims are often complex, vary greatly in dollar amounts and are affected by economic and market conditions and the legal environment existing at the time of settlement of the claims. Estimating future title loss payments is difficult because of the complex nature of title claims, the long periods of time over which claims are paid, significantly varying dollar amounts of individual claims and other factors. From time to time, we experience large losses or an overall worsening of our loss payment experience in regard to the frequency or severity of claims that require us to record additional charges to our claims loss reserve. There are currently pending several large claims which we believe can be defended successfully without material loss payments. However, if unanticipated material payments are required to settle these claims, it could result in or contribute to additional charges to our claim loss reserves. These loss events are unpredictable and adversely affect our earnings.
At each quarter end, our recorded reserve for claim losses is initially the result of taking the prior recorded reserve for claim losses, adding the current provision to that balance and subtracting actual paid claims from that balance, resulting in an amount that management then compares to our actuary's central estimate provided in the actuarial calculation. Due to the uncertainty and judgment used by both management and our actuary, our ultimate liability may be greater or less than our current reserves and/or our actuary’s calculation. If the recorded amount is within a reasonable range of the actuary’s central estimate, but not at the central estimate, management assesses other factors in order to determine our best estimate. These factors, which are both qualitative and quantitative, can change from period to period and include items such as current trends in the real estate industry (which management can assess, but for which there is a time lag in the development of the data used by our actuary), any adjustments from the actuarial estimates needed for the effects of unusually large or small claims, improvements in our claims management processes, and other cost saving measures. Depending upon our assessment of these factors, we may or may not adjust the recorded reserve. If the recorded amount is not within a reasonable range of the actuary’s central estimate, we would record a charge or credit and reassess the provision rate on a go forward basis.
Our provision for claim losses was 7.0% of title premiums in 2013. We will reassess the provision to be recorded in future periods consistent with this methodology and can make no assurance that we will not need to record additional charges in the future to increase reserves in respect of prior periods.
Our insurance subsidiaries must comply with extensive regulations. These regulations may increase our costs or impede or impose burdensome conditions on actions that we might seek to take to increase the revenues of those subsidiaries.
Our insurance businesses are subject to extensive regulation by state insurance authorities in each state in which they operate. These agencies have broad administrative and supervisory power relating to the following, among other matters:
licensing requirements;
trade and marketing practices;

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accounting and financing practices;
capital and surplus requirements;
the amount of dividends and other payments made by insurance subsidiaries;
investment practices;
rate schedules;
deposits of securities for the benefit of policyholders;
establishing reserves; and
regulation of reinsurance.
Most states also regulate insurance holding companies like us with respect to acquisitions, changes of control and the terms of transactions with our affiliates. State regulations may impede or impose burdensome conditions on our ability to increase or maintain rate levels or on other actions that we may want to take to enhance our operating results. In addition, we may incur significant costs in the course of complying with regulatory requirements. Further, various state legislatures have in the past considered offering a public alternative to the title industry in their states, as a means to increase state government revenues. Although we think this situation is unlikely, if one or more such takeovers were to occur they could adversely affect our business. We cannot be assured that future legislative or regulatory changes will not adversely affect our business operations. See “Item 1. Business — Regulation.”
State regulation of the rates we charge for title insurance could adversely affect our results of operations.
Our title insurance subsidiaries are subject to extensive rate regulation by the applicable state agencies in the jurisdictions in which they operate. Title insurance rates are regulated differently in various states, with some states requiring the subsidiaries to file and receive approval of rates before such rates become effective and some states promulgating the rates that can be charged. In almost all states in which our title subsidiaries operate, our rates must not be excessive, inadequate or unfairly discriminatory.
Regulatory investigations of the insurance industry may lead to fines, settlements, new regulation or legal uncertainty, which could negatively affect our results of operations.
From time to time we receive inquiries and requests for information from state insurance departments, attorneys general and other regulatory agencies about various matters relating to our business. Sometimes these take the form of civil investigative demands or subpoenas. We cooperate with all such inquiries and we have responded to or are currently responding to inquiries from multiple governmental agencies. Also, regulators and courts have been dealing with issues arising from foreclosures and related processes and documentation. Various governmental entities are studying the title insurance product, market, pricing, and business practices, and potential regulatory and legislative changes, which may materially affect our business and operations. From time to time, we are assessed fines for violations of regulations or other matters or enter into settlements with such authorities which may require us to pay fines or claims or take other actions.
Because we are dependent upon California for approximately 15.2 percent of our title insurance premiums, our business may be adversely affected by regulatory conditions in California.
California is the largest source of revenue for the title insurance industry and, in 2013, California-based premiums accounted for 35.0% of premiums earned by our direct operations and 0.4% of our agency premium revenues. In the aggregate, California accounted for approximately 15.2% of our total title insurance premiums for 2013. A significant part of our revenues and profitability are therefore subject to our operations in California and to the prevailing regulatory conditions in California. Adverse regulatory developments in California, which could include reductions in the maximum rates permitted to be charged, inadequate rate increases or more fundamental changes in the design or implementation of the California title insurance regulatory framework, could have a material adverse effect on our results of operations and financial condition.
If the rating agencies downgrade our Company, our results of operations and competitive position in the title insurance industry may suffer.
Ratings have always been an important factor in establishing the competitive position of insurance companies. Our title insurance subsidiaries are rated by S&P, Moody’s, A.M. Best, and Demotech. Ratings reflect the opinion of a rating agency with regard to an insurance company’s or insurance holding company’s financial strength, operating performance and ability to meet its obligations to policyholders and are not evaluations directed to investors. Our ratings are subject to continued periodic review by rating agencies and the continued retention of those ratings cannot be assured. If our ratings are reduced from their current levels by those entities, our results of operations could be adversely affected.
Our management has articulated a willingness to seek growth through acquisitions in lines of business that will not necessarily be limited to our traditional areas of focus or geographic areas. This expansion of our business subjects us to associated risks, such as the diversion of management’s attention and lack of experience in operating such businesses, and may affect our credit and ability to repay our debt.
Our management has stated that we may make acquisitions in lines of business that are not directly tied to or synergistic with our core operating segments. Accordingly, we have in the past acquired, and may in the future acquire, businesses in industries or

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geographic areas with which management is less familiar than we are with our core businesses. These activities involve risks that could adversely affect our operating results, such as diversion of management’s attention and lack of substantial experience in operating such businesses. There can be no guarantee that we will not enter into transactions or make acquisitions that will cause us to incur additional debt, increase our exposure to market and other risks and cause our credit or financial strength ratings to decline.
We are a holding company and depend on distributions from our subsidiaries for cash.
We are a holding company whose primary assets are the securities of our operating subsidiaries. Our ability to pay interest on our outstanding debt and our other obligations and to pay dividends is dependent on the ability of our subsidiaries to pay dividends or make other distributions or payments to us. If our operating subsidiaries are not able to pay dividends to us, we may not be able to meet our obligations or pay dividends on our common stock.
Our title insurance subsidiaries must comply with state laws which require them to maintain minimum amounts of working capital, surplus and reserves, and place restrictions on the amount of dividends that they can distribute to us. Compliance with these laws will limit the amounts our regulated subsidiaries can dividend to us. During 2014, our title insurers may pay dividends or make distributions to us without prior regulatory approval of approximately $308 million.
The maximum dividend permitted by law is not necessarily indicative of an insurer’s actual ability to pay dividends, which may be constrained by business and regulatory considerations, such as the impact of dividends on surplus, which could affect an insurer’s ratings or competitive position, the amount of premiums that can be written and the ability to pay future dividends. Further, depending on business and regulatory conditions, we may in the future need to retain cash in our underwriters or even contribute cash to one or more of them in order to maintain their ratings or their statutory capital position. Such a requirement could be the result of investment losses, reserve charges, adverse operating conditions in the current economic environment or changes in interpretation of statutory accounting requirements by regulators.
We could have conflicts with Fidelity National Information Services ("FIS"), and our chairman of our Board of Directors and other officers and directors could have conflicts of interest due to their relationships with FIS.
FIS and FNF were under common ownership by another publicly traded company, also called Fidelity National Financial, Inc. (“Old FNF”) until October 2006, when Old FNF distributed all of its FNF shares to the stockholders of Old FNF (the "2006 Distribution"). In November 2006, Old FNF then merged into FIS.
Conflicts may arise between us and FIS as a result of our ongoing agreements and the nature of our respective businesses. Certain of our executive officers and directors could be subject to conflicts of interest with respect to such agreements and other matters due to their relationships with FIS.
Some of our executive officers and directors own substantial amounts of FIS stock and stock options. Such ownership could create or appear to create potential conflicts of interest when our directors and officers are faced with decisions that involve FIS or any of its subsidiaries.
William P. Foley, II, is the executive chairman of our Board of Directors and the Vice Chairman of the Board of FIS. As a result of these roles, he has obligations to us and FIS and may have conflicts of interest with respect to matters potentially or actually involving or affecting our and FIS’s respective businesses. In addition, Mr. Foley may also have conflicts of time with respect to his multiple responsibilities. If his duties to either of these companies require more time than Mr. Foley is able to allot, then his oversight of that company’s activities could be diminished. Finally, in addition to Mr. Foley, FIS and FNF have two overlapping directors.
Matters that could give rise to conflicts between us and FIS include, among other things:
our ongoing and future relationships with FIS, including related party agreements and other arrangements with respect to the information technology support services, administrative corporate support and cost sharing services, indemnification, and other matters; and
the quality and pricing of services that we have agreed to provide to FIS or that it has agreed to provide to us.
We seek to manage these potential conflicts through dispute resolution and other provisions of our agreements with FIS and through oversight by independent members of our Board of Directors. However, there can be no assurance that such measures will be effective or that we will be able to resolve all potential conflicts with FIS, or that the resolution of any such conflicts will be no less favorable to us than if we were dealing with a third party.
The loss of key personnel could negatively affect our financial results and impair our operating abilities.
Our success substantially depends on our ability to attract and retain key members of our senior management team and officers. If we lose one or more of these key employees, our operating results and in turn the value of our common stock could be materially adversely affected. Although we have employment agreements with many of our officers, there can be no assurance that the entire term of the employment agreement will be served or that the employment agreement will be renewed upon expiration.

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Although we expect that our acquisition of LPS will result in cost savings, synergies and other benefits to us, we may not realize those benefits because of integration difficulties and other challenges.
The success of our acquisition of LPS will depend in large part on the success of the management of the combined company in integrating the operations, strategies, technologies and personnel of the two companies following the completion of the merger. We may fail to realize some or all of the anticipated benefits of the merger if the integration process takes longer than expected or is more costly than expected. Our failure to meet the challenges involved in successfully integrating the operations of LPS or to otherwise realize any of the anticipated benefits of the merger, including additional cost savings and synergies, could impair our operations. In addition, we anticipate that the overall integration of LPS will be a time-consuming and expensive process that, without proper planning and effective and timely implementation, could significantly disrupt our business.
Potential difficulties the combined company may encounter in the integration process include the following:
the integration of management teams, strategies, technologies and operations, products and services;
the disruption of ongoing businesses and distraction of their respective management teams from ongoing business concerns;
the retention of and possible decrease in business from the existing clients of both companies;
the creation of uniform standards, controls, procedures, policies and information systems;
the reduction of the costs associated with each company’s operations;
the consolidation and rationalization of information technology platforms and administrative infrastructures;
the integration of corporate cultures and maintenance of employee morale;
the retention of key employees; and
potential unknown liabilities associated with the merger.
The anticipated cost savings, synergies and other benefits include the combination of offices in various locations and the elimination of numerous technology systems, duplicative personnel and duplicative market and other data sources. However, these anticipated cost savings, synergies and other benefits assume a successful integration and are based on projections, which are inherently uncertain, and other assumptions. Even if integration is successful, anticipated cost savings, synergies and other benefits may not be achieved.
Failure of our information security systems or processes could result in a loss or disclosure of confidential information, damage to our reputation, monetary losses, additional costs and impairment of our ability to conduct business effectively.
Our core operations are highly dependent upon the effective operation of our computer systems. As part of our core operations, we electronically receive, process, store and transmit sensitive personal consumer data (such as names and addresses, social security numbers, driver's license numbers, credit card and bank account information) and important business information of our customers. We also electronically manage substantial cash, investment asset and escrow account balances on behalf of ourselves and our customers, as well as financial information about our businesses generally. The integrity of our information systems and the protection of the information that resides on such systems are important to our successful operation. If we fail to maintain an adequate security infrastructure, adapt to emerging security threats or follow our internal business processes with respect to security, the information or assets we hold could be compromised. Further, even if we (or third parties to which we outsource certain IT services) maintain a reasonable, industry standard information security infrastructure, it is possible that unauthorized persons still could obtain access to information or assets we hold. These risks are increased when we transmit information over the Internet and due to increasing security risks posed by organized crime. While, to date, we believe that we have not experienced a material breach of our information security systems, the existence or scope of such events is not always apparent. If additional information regarding an incident previously considered immaterial is discovered, or a new event were to occur, it could potentially have a material adverse effect on us. In addition, some laws and certain of our contracts require notification of various parties, including consumers or customers, in the event that confidential or personal information has or may have been taken or accessed by unauthorized third parties. Such notifications can result, among other things, in adverse publicity, distraction of managements’ time and energy, the attention of regulatory authorities, fines and disruptions in sales, the effects of which may be material.
Further, our financial institution customers have obligations to safeguard their information technology systems and information. In certain of our businesses, we are bound contractually and/or by regulation to comply with the same requirements. If we fail to comply with these regulations and requirements, we could be exposed to suits for breach of contract, governmental proceedings or the imposition of fines. In addition, if more restrictive privacy laws, rules or industry security requirements are adopted in the future on the federal or state level or by a specific industry in which we do business, that could have an adverse impact on us through increased costs or restrictions on business processes. Any inability to prevent security or privacy breaches, or the perception that such breaches may occur, could inhibit our ability to retain existing customers or attract new customers and/or result in financial losses, litigation, increased costs or other adverse consequences to our business.


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Our operations could be adversely affected by the results of our acquired restaurant companies due to the risks inherent in that segment.
Our acquired restaurant companies face certain risks that could negatively impact their results of operations. These risks include such things as the risks of unfavorable economic conditions, changing consumer preferences, unfavorable publicity, increasing food and labor costs, effectiveness of marketing campaigns, and the ability to compete successfully with other restaurants. In addition, risks related to supply chain, food quality, and protecting guests' personal information are inherent to the restaurant business. These companies are also subject to compliance with extensive government laws and regulations related to employment practices and policies and the manufacture, preparation, and sale of food and alcohol. If our restaurant companies are not able to respond effectively to one or more of these risks, it could have a material adverse impact on the results of operations of those businesses.
Our business, financial condition and results of operations could be adversely affected by risks affecting Remy.
Any material adverse change in Remy's financial position or results of operations could adversely affect our financial position or results of operations. Remy's results are affected by factors such as general economic conditions, levels of demand for new light and commercial vehicles, fuel prices, the product life of new and replacement parts, product liability and warranty claims related to its products, litigation and other disputes, and changes in the cost and availability of raw materials and components utilized in the manufacturing of its products. In addition, Remy's results also are influenced by technological innovations, relationships with its key customers and their success in the marketplace, and Remy's ability to compete successfully with its competitors. If Remy is not able to respond effectively to one or more of these risks, it could have a material adverse impact on its results of operations, which, in turn, would adversely impact our financial condition and results of operations.
Given the international reach of its business, Remy is also subject to risks inherent in conducting business outside the United States, including foreign currency fluctuations, local political climates, export and import restrictions, and compliance with government laws and regulations such as the U.S. Foreign Corrupt Practices Act and the U.S. Export Administration Act. Any failure to manage these risks and requirements could harm Remy's business, financial condition or results of operations, which would similarly affect our financial condition and results of operations.
Item 1B.
Unresolved Staff Comments
None.
Item 2.  
Properties
Fidelity National Title Group
Fidelity National Title Group's corporate headquarters are on our campus in Jacksonville, Florida. The majority of our branch offices are leased from third parties (see Note M to Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements). Our subsidiaries conduct their business operations primarily in leased office space in 42 states, Washington, DC, Puerto Rico, Canada, India and Mexico.
Black Knight
Black Knight corporate headquarters are located in Jacksonville, Florida, in an owned facility. Black Knight also owns one facility in Sharon, Pennsylvania, and leases office space throughout the United States.
Remy
Remy's world headquarters are located in Pendleton, Indiana. The majority of Remy's facilities, including the world headquarters are leased from third parties (see Note M to Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements). Remy's subsidiaries conduct their business operations in 10 countries including the United States, Belgium, Hungary, the United Kingdom, Brazil, Canada, China, Mexico, South Korea and Tunisia.
Restaurant Group
The Restaurant Group's headquarters are located in Nashville, Tennessee with other office locations in Woburn, Massachusetts and Denver, Colorado.  The majority of the restaurants are leased from third parties, and are located in 43 states.

Item 3.
Legal Proceedings  
For a description of our legal proceedings see discussion of Legal and Regulatory Contingencies in Note M to the Consolidated Financial Statements included in Item 8 of Part II of this Report, which is incorporated by reference into this Part I, Item 3.

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Item 4.
Mine Safety Disclosure
Not applicable.

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PART II
Item 5.
Market for Registrant's Common Equity, Related Stockholder Matters and Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities
Our common stock trades on the New York Stock Exchange under the ticker symbol "FNF." The table set forth below provides the high and low closing sales prices of the common stock and cash dividends declared per share of common stock for each quarter during 2013 and 2012.
 
Stock Price High
 
Stock Price Low
 
Cash Dividends
Declared
Year ended December 31, 2013
 

 
 

 
 

First quarter
$
26.41

 
$
23.45

 
$
0.16

Second quarter
27.17

 
21.99

 
0.16

Third quarter
26.75

 
23.23

 
0.16

Fourth quarter
33.80

 
25.50

 
0.18

 
 
 
 
 
 
Year ended December 31, 2012
 

 
 

 
 

First quarter
$
18.54

 
$
15.66

 
$
0.14

Second quarter
19.70

 
17.62

 
0.14

Third quarter
21.48

 
18.07

 
0.14

Fourth quarter
24.30

 
20.71

 
0.16

Information concerning securities authorized for issuance under our equity compensation plans will be included in Item 12 of Part III of this report.

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PERFORMANCE GRAPH
Set forth below is a graph comparing cumulative total shareholder return on our common stock against the cumulative total return on the S & P 500 Index and against the cumulative total return of a peer group index consisting of certain companies in the primary industry in which we compete (SIC code 6361 — Title Insurance) for the period ending December 31, 2013. This peer group consists of the following companies: First American Financial Corporation and Stewart Information Services Corp. The peer group comparison has been weighted based on their stock market capitalization. The graph assumes an initial investment of $100.00 on December 31, 2008, with dividends reinvested over the periods indicated.
Comparison of 5 Year Cumulative Total Return
Among Fidelity National Financial, Inc., the S&P 500 Index
and Peer Group

 
 
 
12/31/2008

12/31/2009
12/31/2010
12/31/2011
12/31/2012
12/31/2013
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Fidelity National Financial, Inc.
 
100.00

78.95

84.24

101.25

154.10

217.89

S&P 500
 
100.00

126.46

145.51

148.59

172.37

228.19

Peer Group
 
100.00

108.97

89.23

78.41

155.48

187.00

On January 31, 2014, the last reported sale price of our common stock on the New York Stock Exchange was $31.54 per share and we had approximately 10,119 stockholders of record.
On January 28, 2014, our Board of Directors formally declared an $0.18 per share cash dividend that is payable on March 31, 2014 to stockholders of record as of March 17, 2014.
Our current dividend policy anticipates the payment of quarterly dividends in the future. The declaration and payment of dividends will be at the discretion of our Board of Directors and will be dependent upon our future earnings, financial condition and capital requirements. There are no restrictions on our retained earnings regarding our ability to pay dividends to shareholders, although there are limits on the ability of certain subsidiaries to pay dividends to us, as described below. Our ability to declare dividends is subject to restrictions under our existing credit agreement. We do not believe the restrictions contained in our credit agreement will, in the foreseeable future, adversely affect our ability to pay cash dividends at the current dividend rate.
Since we are a holding company, our ability to pay dividends will depend largely on the ability of our subsidiaries to pay dividends to us, and the ability of our title insurance subsidiaries to do so is subject to, among other factors, their compliance with applicable insurance regulations. As of December 31, 2013, $1,909 million of our net assets are restricted from dividend payments without prior approval from the Departments of Insurance in the States where our title insurance subsidiaries are domiciled. During

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2014, our directly owned title insurance subsidiaries can pay dividends or make distributions to us of approximately $308 million without prior approval. The limits placed on such subsidiaries’ abilities to pay dividends affect our ability to pay dividends.
Subsequent to year end, on January 2, 2014 as part of the LPS Acquisition, we issued $837 million or 25,920,078 shares of FNF common stock as consideration for the LPS Acquisition to the former shareholders of LPS.
On October 24, 2013, we offered 17,250,000 shares of our common stock at an offering price of $26.75 per share, pursuant to an effective registration statement previously filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission. We granted the underwriters a 30-day option to purchase 2,587,500 additional shares at the offering price, which was subsequently exercised in full. A total of 19,837,500 shares were issued on October 30, 2013, for net proceeds of approximately $511 million. The net proceeds from this offering were used to pay a portion of the cash consideration for the LPS Acquisition on January 2, 2014.
On July 21, 2009, the Board of Directors approved a three-year stock repurchase program under which we can repurchase up to 15 million shares of our common stock through July 31, 2012. On January 27, 2011, our Board of Directors approved an additional 5 million shares that may be repurchased under the program. This program expired July 31, 2012, and we repurchased a total of 16,528,512 shares for $243 million, or an average of $14.73 per share under this program.
On July 21, 2012, our Board of Directors approved a three-year stock repurchase program, effective August 1, 2012, under which we can repurchase up to 15 million shares of our common stock through July 31, 2015. We may make repurchases from time to time in the open market, in block purchases or in privately negotiated transactions, depending on market conditions and other factors. In the year ended December 31, 2013, we repurchased a total of 1,400,000 shares for $34 million, or an average of $24.14 per share under this program. Subsequent to year-end we did not repurchase any shares through market close on February 27, 2014. Since the original commencement of the plan adopted July 21, 2012, we have repurchased a total of 2,080,000 shares for $50 million, or an average of $23.90 per share, and there are 12,920,000 shares available to be repurchased under this program. For more information, see “Liquidity and Capital Resources” in Item 7 of this Form 10-K.
The following table summarizes repurchases of equity securities by FNF during the year ending December 31, 2013:
Period
 
Total Number of Shares Purchased
 
Average Price Paid per Share
 
Total Number of Shares Purchased as Part of Publicly Announced Plans or Programs (1)
 
Maximum Number of Shares that May Yet Be Purchased Under the Plans or Programs (2)
1/1/2013 - 1/31/2013
 
60,000

 
$
24.46

 
60,000

 
14,260,000

2/1/2013 - 2/28/2013
 
80,000

 
25.17

 
80,000

 
14,180,000

3/1/2013 - 3/31/2013
 
1,260,000

 
24.06

 
1,260,000

 
12,920,000

4/1/2013 - 4/30/2013
 

 

 

 
12,920,000

5/1/2013 - 5/31/2013
 

 

 

 
12,920,000

6/1/2013 - 6/30/2013
 

 

 

 
12,920,000

7/1/2013 - 7/31/2013
 

 

 

 
12,920,000

8/1/2013 - 8/31/2013
 

 

 

 
12,920,000

9/1/2013 - 9/30/2013
 

 

 

 
12,920,000

10/1/2013 - 10/31/2013
 

 

 

 
12,920,000

11/1/2013 - 11/30/2013
 

 

 

 
12,920,000

12/1/2013 - 12/31/2013
 

 

 

 
12,920,000

 
 
1,400,000

 
$
24.14

 
1,400,000

 
 
________________________
(1)
On July 21, 2012, our Board of Directors approved a new three-year stock repurchase program, effective August 1, 2012. Under the stock repurchase program, we can repurchase up to 15 million shares of our common stock.
(2)
As of the last day of the applicable month.


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Item 6.     Selected Financial Data
The information set forth below should be read in conjunction with the consolidated financial statements and related notes and “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” included elsewhere in this Form 10-K. Certain reclassifications have been made to the prior year amounts to conform with the 2013 presentation.
During the third quarter of 2012, we acquired 1.5 million additional shares of Remy International, Inc. ("Remy"), increasing our ownership interest to 16.3 million shares or 51% of Remy's total outstanding common shares. As a result of this acquisition we began to consolidate the results of Remy effective August 14, 2012.
On April 9, 2012, we successfully closed a tender offer for the outstanding common stock of O'Charley's Inc. We have consolidated the results of O'Charley's as of April 9, 2012. On May 11, 2012, we merged O'Charley's with our investment in ABRH in exchange for an increase in our ownership position in ABRH from 45% to 55%. We have consolidated the operations of ABRH with the O'Charley's group of companies, beginning on May 11, 2012.
 
Year Ended December 31,
 
2013
 
2012
 
2011
 
2010
 
2009(1)
 
(Dollars in millions, except share data)
Operating Data:
 

 
 

 
 

 
 

 
 

Revenue
$
8,565

 
$
7,165

 
$
4,800

 
$
5,413

 
$
5,521

Expenses:
 

 
 

 
 

 
 

 
 

Personnel costs
2,134

 
1,863

 
1,568

 
1,579

 
1,620

Agent commissions
1,789

 
1,600

 
1,411

 
1,758

 
1,952

Other operating expenses
1,319

 
1,287

 
1,064

 
1,145

 
1,228

Cost of auto parts revenue
947

 
350

 

 

 

Cost of restaurant revenues
1,204

 
773

 

 

 

Depreciation and amortization
137

 
104

 
73

 
87

 
105

Provision for title claim losses
291

 
279

 
222

 
249

 
265

Interest expense
93

 
74

 
57

 
46

 
36

 
7,914

 
6,330

 
4,395

 
4,864

 
5,206

Earnings before income taxes, equity in (loss) earnings of unconsolidated affiliates, and noncontrolling interest
651

 
835

 
405

 
549

 
315

Income tax expense
205

 
245

 
131

 
190

 
97

Earnings before equity in (loss) earnings of unconsolidated affiliates
446

 
590

 
274

 
359

 
218

Equity in (loss) earnings of unconsolidated affiliates
(26
)
 
10

 
10

 
(1
)
 
(12
)
Earnings from continuing operations, net of tax
420

 
600

 
284

 
358

 
206

(Loss) earnings from discontinued operations, net of tax
(1
)
 
12

 
95

 
18

 
18

Net earnings
419

 
612

 
379

 
376

 
224

Less: net earnings attributable to noncontrolling interests
17

 
5

 
10

 
6

 
2

Net earnings attributable to FNF common shareholders
$
402

 
$
607

 
$
369

 
$
370

 
$
222


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Year Ended December 31,
 
2013
 
2012
 
2011
 
2010
 
2009(1)
 
(Dollars in millions, except share data)
Per Share Data:
 

 
 

 
 

 
 

 
 

Basic net earnings per share attributable to FNF common shareholders
$
1.75

 
$
2.75

 
$
1.68

 
$
1.64

 
$
0.99

Weighted average shares outstanding, basic basis (2)
230

 
221

 
219

 
226

 
225

Diluted net earnings per share attributable to FNF common shareholders
$
1.71

 
$
2.69

 
$
1.65

 
$
1.62

 
$
0.97

Weighted average shares outstanding, diluted basis (2)
235

 
226

 
223

 
229

 
229

Dividends declared per share
$
0.66

 
$
0.58

 
$
0.48

 
$
0.69

 
$
0.60

Balance Sheet Data:
 

 
 

 
 

 
 

 
 

Investments (3)
$
3,791

 
$
4,053

 
$
4,052

 
$
4,359

 
$
4,686

Cash and cash equivalents (4)
1,969

 
1,132

 
665

 
581

 
202

Total assets
10,524

 
9,903

 
7,862

 
7,888

 
7,934

Notes payable
1,323

 
1,344

 
916

 
952

 
862

Reserve for title claim losses (5)
1,636

 
1,748

 
1,913

 
2,270

 
2,539

Equity
5,542

 
4,749

 
3,655

 
3,444

 
3,345

Book value per share (6)
$
22.14

 
$
20.78

 
$
16.57

 
$
15.39

 
$
14.53

Other Data:
 

 
 

 
 

 
 

 
 

Orders opened by direct title operations (in 000's)
2,181

 
2,702

 
2,140

 
2,385

 
2,611

Orders closed by direct title operations (in 000's)
1,708

 
1,867

 
1,514

 
1,574

 
1,792

Provision for title insurance claim losses as a percent of title insurance premiums (5)
7.0
%
 
7.0
%
 
6.8
%
 
6.8
%
 
5.1
%
Title related revenue (7):
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Percentage direct operations
60.1
%
 
61.9
%
 
60.6
%
 
55.6
%
 
54.2
%
Percentage agency operations
39.9
%
 
38.1
%
 
39.4
%
 
44.4
%
 
45.8
%
______________________________________
(1)
Our financial results for the year ended December 31, 2009, include a decrease to our provision for claim losses of $74 million ($47 million net of income taxes) as a result of favorable claim loss development on prior policy years, offset by an increase to the provision for claim losses of $63 million ($40 million net of income taxes) as a result of unfavorable developments in the third quarter on a previously recorded insurance receivable.
(2)
Weighted average shares outstanding as of December 31, 2013 includes 19,837,500 shares that were issued as part of an equity offering by FNF on October 31, 2013 and weighted average shares outstanding as of December 31, 2009 includes 18,170,000 shares that were issued as part of an equity offering by FNF on April 20, 2009.
(3)
Long-term investments as of December 31, 2013, 2012, 2011, 2010, and 2009, include securities pledged to secured trust deposits of $261 million, $275 million, $274 million, $252 million, and $289 million, respectively.
(4)
Cash and cash equivalents as of December 31, 2013, 2012, 2011, 2010, and 2009 include cash pledged to secured trust deposits of $339 million, $266 million, $162 million, $146 million, and $97 million, respectively.
(5)
As a result of favorable title insurance claim loss development on prior policy years, we recorded a credit in 2009 totaling $74 million, ($47 million net of income taxes) to our provision for claims losses. This credit was recorded in addition to our average provision for claim losses of 7.3% for the year ended December 31, 2009.
(6)
Book value per share is calculated as equity at December 31 of each year presented divided by actual shares outstanding at December 31 of each year presented.
(7)
Includes title insurance premiums and escrow, title-related and other fees.

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Selected Quarterly Financial Data (Unaudited)
Selected quarterly financial data is as follows:
 
Quarter Ended
 
March 31,
 
June 30,
 
September 30,
 
December 31,
 
(Dollars in millions, except per share data)
2013
 

 
 

 
 

 
 

Revenue
$
2,041

 
$
2,279

 
$
2,174

 
$
2,071

Earnings from continuing operations before income taxes, equity in (loss) earnings of unconsolidated affiliates, and noncontrolling interest
137

 
223

 
168

 
123

Net earnings attributable to Fidelity National Financial, Inc. common shareholders
89

 
139

 
98

 
76

Basic earnings per share attributable to Fidelity National Financial, Inc. common shareholders
0.40

 
0.62

 
0.43

 
0.30

Diluted earnings per share attributable to Fidelity National Financial, Inc. common shareholders
0.39

 
0.61

 
0.43

 
0.28

Dividends paid per share
0.16

 
0.16

 
0.16

 
0.18

2012
 

 
 

 
 

 
 

Revenue
$
1,180

 
$
1,727

 
$
2,033

 
$
2,225

Earnings from continuing operations before income taxes, equity in (loss) earnings of unconsolidated affiliates, and noncontrolling interest
102

 
220

 
301

 
212

Net earnings attributable to Fidelity National Financial, Inc. common shareholders
74

 
147

 
234

 
152

Basic earnings per share attributable to Fidelity National Financial, Inc. common shareholders
0.34

 
0.67

 
1.06

 
0.68

Diluted earnings per share attributable to Fidelity National Financial, Inc. common shareholders
0.33

 
0.65

 
1.04

 
0.67

Dividends paid per share
0.14

 
0.14

 
0.14

 
0.16



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Item 7.  
Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations
The following discussion should be read in conjunction with the Consolidated Financial Statements and the Notes thereto and Selected Financial Data included elsewhere in this Form 10-K.
Overview
We are a leading provider of title insurance, technology and transaction services to the real estate and mortgage industries. We are the nation’s largest title insurance company through our title insurance underwriters - Fidelity National Title, Chicago Title, Commonwealth Land Title and Alamo Title - that collectively issue more title insurance policies than any other title company in the United States. We also provide industry-leading mortgage technology solutions and transaction services, including MSP®, the leading residential mortgage servicing technology platform in the U.S., through our majority-owned subsidiaries, Black Knight Financial Services, LLC ("BKFS") and ServiceLink Holdings, LLC ("ServiceLink"). In addition, we own majority and minority equity investment stakes in a number of entities, including American Blue Ribbon Holdings, LLC ("ABRH"), J. Alexander’s, LLC ("J. Alexander's"), Remy International, Inc. ("Remy"), Ceridian HCM, Inc., Comdata Inc. (collectively "Ceridian") and Digital Insurance, Inc. ("Digital Insurance").
As of December 31, 2013, we had five reporting segments as follows:
FNF Core Operations
Fidelity National Title Group. This segment consists of the operations of our title insurance underwriters and related businesses. This segment provides core title insurance and escrow and other title related services including collection and trust activities, trustee’s sales guarantees, recordings and reconveyances, and home warranty insurance.
FNF Corporate and Other. The FNF corporate and other segment consists of the operations of the parent holding company, certain other unallocated corporate overhead expenses, and other smaller real estate and insurance related operations.
Portfolio Company Investments
Remy. This segment consists of the operations of Remy, in which we have a 51% ownership interest. Remy is a leading designer, manufacturer, remanufacturer, marketer and distributor of aftermarket and original equipment components for automobiles, light trucks, heavy-duty trucks and other vehicles.
Restaurant Group. The Restaurant Group segment consists of the operations of ABRH, in which we have a 55% ownership interest. ABRH is the owner and operator of the O'Charley's, Ninety Nine Restaurants, Max & Erma's, Village Inn and Bakers Square concepts. This segment also includes J. Alexander's, which includes the Stoney River Legendary Steaks ("Stoney River") concept.
Portfolio Company Corporate and Other. The Portfolio Company Corporate and Other segment primarily consists of our share in the operations of certain equity investments, including Ceridian, Digital Insurance and other smaller operations which are not title related.
Recent Developments
On January 31, 2014 we announced our plans to form a new tracking stock for Fidelity National Financial Ventures (“FNFV”). As a result, we have decided to begin separately reporting the results of our core operations, which includes Fidelity National Title Group, Inc. (“FNT”), BKFS, ServiceLink and the portfolio company investments which include Remy, the Restaurant Group, Digital Insurance and other smaller operations. The portfolio company investments will comprise FNFV in the future.
On January 13, 2014, Remy announced that they acquired substantially all of the assets of United Starters and Alternators Industries, Inc. ("USA Industries") pursuant to the terms and conditions of the Asset Purchase Agreement, effective as of January 13, 2014. USA Industries is a leading worldwide distributor of premium quality re-manufactured and new alternators, starters, constant velocity axles and disc brake calipers for the light-duty aftermarket. Total consideration paid was $41million.
On January 2, 2014, we completed the purchase of Lender Processing Services, Inc. ("LPS"). The purchase consideration paid was $37.14 per share, of which $28.10 per share was paid in cash and the remaining $9.04 was paid in FNF common shares. The purchase consideration represented an exchange ratio of 0.28742 per share of LPS common stock. Total consideration paid for LPS was $3.4 billion, which consisted of $2,535 million in cash and $836 million in FNF common stock. In order to pay the stock component of the consideration, we issued 25,920,078 shares to the former LPS shareholders.
On October 24, 2013, we offered 17,250,000 shares of our common stock at an offering price of $26.75 per share, pursuant to an effective registration statement previously filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission. We granted the underwriters a 30-day option to purchase 2,587,500 additional shares at the offering price, which was subsequently exercised in full. A total

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of 19,837,500 shares were issued on October 30, 2013, for net proceeds of approximately $511 million. The net proceeds from this offering were used to pay a portion of the cash consideration for the LPS Acquisition on January 2, 2014.
Subsequent to our announcement of the LPS acquisition, we formed a wholly-owned subsidiary, Black Knight Financial Services, Inc. (now known as Black Knight Holdings, Inc., "Black Knight"). Black Knight is the mortgage and finance industries' leading provider of integrated technology, data and analytics solutions, and transaction services. Black Knight has two operating segments, ServiceLink and BKFS. We retained a 65% ownership interest in each of the subsidiaries and issued the remaining 35% ownership interest to funds affiliated with Thomas H. Lee Partners, and certain related entities on January 3, 2014. Black Knight, through ServiceLink and BKFS, now owns and operates the former LPS businesses and our ServiceLink business. Fidelity National Title Group, BKFS and ServiceLink will be our core operating subsidiaries in the future.
On February 25, 2013, we formed J. Alexander's, a restaurant company which is focused on the upscale-casual dining segment. J. Alexander's consists of thirty J. Alexander's locations and ten Stoney River locations. ABRH contributed the ten Stoney River locations to J. Alexander's for an approximate 28% ownership interest in the new company, giving us an overall 87% ownership interest in J. Alexander's. The operations of J. Alexander's are consolidated in our existing Restaurant Group segment. Previously, in September 2012 we purchased all of the outstanding common stock of J. Alexander's Corporation for total consideration of $72 million in cash, net of cash acquired of $7 million.
Related Party Transactions 
Our financial statements reflect transactions with Fidelity National Information Services ("FIS"), which is a related party. See Note A of the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements.
Business Trends and Conditions
FNF Core Operations
Title insurance revenue is closely related to the level of real estate activity which includes sales, mortgage financing and mortgage refinancing. The levels of real estate activity are primarily affected by the average price of real estate sales, the availability of funds to finance purchases and mortgage interest rates. Declines in the level of real estate activity or the average price of real estate sales will adversely affect our title insurance revenues.
We have found that residential real estate activity is generally dependent on the following:
mortgage interest rates;
the mortgage funding supply; and
the strength of the United States economy, including employment levels.
In 2007, as interest rates on adjustable rate mortgages reset to higher rates, foreclosures on subprime mortgage loans increased to record levels. This resulted in a significant decrease in levels of available mortgage funding as investors became wary of the risks associated with investing in subprime mortgage loans. In addition, tighter lending standards and a bearish outlook on the real estate environment caused potential home buyers to become reluctant to purchase homes. In 2008, the increase in foreclosure activity, which had previously been limited to the subprime mortgage market, became more widespread as borrowers encountered difficulties in attempting to refinance their adjustable rate mortgages. In the last three years, the elevated mortgage delinquency and default rates caused negative operating results at a number of banks and financial institutions and, as a result, significantly reduced the level of lending activity. Multiple banks have failed from 2009-2012, further reducing the capacity of the mortgage industry to make loans.
Since December 2008, the Federal Reserve has held the federal funds rate at 0.0%-0.25%, and has indicated that rates will stay at this level at least until unemployment rates improve. Mortgage interest rates remained at historically low levels throughout 2013, however, in September 2013 interest rates rose to their highest level since 2011.
As of January 14, 2014, the Mortgage Banker's Association ("MBA") estimated the size of the U.S. mortgage originations market as shown in the following table for 2013 - 2015 in their "Mortgage Finance Forecast" (in trillions):
 
 
2015
 
2014
 
2013
 
2012
Purchase transactions
 
$
0.8

1.1

$
0.7

 
$
0.7

 
$
0.6

Refinance transactions
 
0.4

 
0.4

 
1.1

 
1.4

Total U.S. mortgage originations
 
$
1.2

 
$
1.1

 
$
1.8

 
$
2.0

As shown above, the originations in 2013 and 2012 were driven primarily by refinance transactions, which coincides with the historically low interest rates experienced during those years. In 2014, the MBA predicts a 38.9% decrease in the total market, primarily due to a 63.6% decrease in refinance transactions in 2014, with the originations in 2015 remaining relatively consistent with those in 2014.

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Several pieces of legislation were enacted to address the struggling mortgage market and the current economic and financial environment. On October 24, 2011, the Federal Housing Finance Agency ("FHFA") announced a series of changes to the Home Affordable Refinance Program ("HARP") that would make it easier for certain borrowers who owe more than their home is worth and who are current on their mortgage payments to refinance their mortgages at lower interest rates. The program reduces or eliminates the risk-based fees Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac charge on many loans, raises the loan-to-home value ratio requirement for refinancing, and streamlines the underwriting process. According to the Federal Housing Authority ("FHA"), lenders began taking refinancing applications on December 1, 2011 under the modified HARP. On April 11, 2013, the FHFA announced that the modified HARP program had been extended through December 2015. We believe the modified HARP program had a positive effect on our results during 2013 and 2012, but are uncertain to what degree the program may impact our results in the future.
During 2010, a number of lenders imposed freezes on foreclosures in some or all states as they reviewed their foreclosure practices. In response to these freezes, the Office of the Comptroller of the Currency ("OCC") reviewed the foreclosure practices in the residential mortgage loan servicing industry. On April 13, 2011, the OCC and other federal regulators (collectively the "banking agencies") announced formal consent orders against several national bank mortgage servicers and third-party servicer providers for inappropriate practices related to residential mortgage loan servicing and foreclosure processing. The consent orders require the servicers to promptly correct deficiencies and make improvements in practices for residential mortgage loan servicing and foreclosure processing, including improvements to future communications with borrowers and a comprehensive "look back" to assess whether foreclosures complied with federal and state laws and whether any deficiencies in the process or related documentation resulted in financial injury to borrowers. Our title insurance underwriters were not involved in these enforcement actions and we do not believe that our title insurance underwriters are exposed to significant losses resulting from faulty foreclosure practices. Our title insurance underwriters issue title policies on real estate owned properties to new purchasers and lenders to those purchasers. We believe that these policies will not result in significant additional claims exposure to us because even if a court sets aside a foreclosure due to a defect in documentation, the foreclosing lender would be required to return to our insureds all funds obtained from them, resulting in reduced exposure under the title insurance policy. Further, we believe that under current law and the rights we have under our title insurance policies, we would have the right to seek recovery from the foreclosing lender in the event of a failure to comply with state laws or local practices in connection with a foreclosure. The former LPS and certain of its subsidiaries entered into a consent order with the banking agencies in relation to its default operations, now part of ServiceLink. As part of the consent order, LPS agreed to further study the issues identified in the review and enhance its compliance, internal audit, risk management and board oversight plans with respect to the related businesses, among additional agreed undertakings. In January 2013, ten large mortgage servicers concluded the reviews required by the 2011 consent orders and agreed to monetary settlements, and LPS also entered into settlement agreements, in January 2013 with 49 States and the District of Columbia relating to certain practices within its default operations and in February 2014, Black Knight (formerly LPS) also settled with the State of Nevada and the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation. In April 2013, these mortgage servicers began making restitution under these settlements. We cannot predict whether these settlements may result in more normalized foreclosure timelines in the future. Moreover, we cannot predict whether any additional legislative or regulatory changes will be implemented as a result of the findings of the banking agencies or whether the U.S. federal government may take additional action to address the current housing market and economic uncertainty. Some states have enacted or are considering adopting legislation, such as the California Homeowner Bill of Rights, that places additional responsibilities and restrictions on servicers with respect to the foreclosure process. Any such actions could further extend foreclosure timelines. Moreover, as the processing of foreclosures in accordance with applicable law becomes more onerous, many lenders are addressing loans in default through other means, such as short sales, in order to avoid the risks and liability now associated with the foreclosure process. If foreclosure timelines continue to be extended and servicers address delinquent loans through other processes, the results of our default operations within ServiceLink may be adversely affected.
On February 9, 2012, federal officials, state attorneys general and representatives of Bank of America, JP Morgan Chase, Wells Fargo, Citigroup and Ally Financial agreed to a $25 billion settlement of federal and state investigations into the foreclosure practices of banks and other mortgage servicers from September 2008 to December 2011. Under the settlement, approximately 1,000,000 underwater borrowers will have their mortgages reduced by lenders and 300,000 homeowners will be able to refinance their homes at lower interest rates. We are uncertain to what degree these initiatives have affected our results or may affect our results in the future.
In addition to state-level regulation, segments of our core businesses are subject to regulation by federal agencies, including the Consumer Financial Protection Bureau (“CFPB”). The Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act of 2010 established the CFPB, and in January 2012, President Obama appointed its first director.  The CFPB has been given broad authority to regulate, among other areas, the mortgage and real estate markets in matters pertaining to consumers. This authority includes the enforcement of the Real Estate Settlement Procedures Act formerly placed with the Department of Housing and Urban Development.  On July 9, 2012, the CFPB introduced a number of proposed rules related to the enforcement of the Real Estate Settlement Procedures Act and the Truth in Lending Act, including, among others, measures designed to (i) simplify financing documentation and (ii) require lenders to deliver to consumers a statement of final financing charges (and the related annual

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percentage rate) at least three business days prior to the closing.  These rules became effective on January 10, 2014 .  We cannot be certain what impact, if any, these new rules, or the CFPB generally, will have on our core businesses.
Historically, real estate transactions have produced seasonal revenue levels for the real estate industry including title insurers. The first calendar quarter is typically the weakest quarter in terms of revenue due to the generally low volume of home sales during January and February. The third calendar quarter has been typically the strongest in terms of revenue primarily due to a higher volume of home sales in the summer months and the fourth quarter is usually also strong due to commercial entities desiring to complete transactions by year-end. We have noted short term fluctuations through recent years in resale and refinance transactions as a result of changes in interest rates and the implementation and subsequent expiration of government programs designed to stimulate the real estate market. In 2013, we have seen seasonality trends return to historical patterns. During 2012 and 2013, we experienced an increase in existing home sales to the highest volume levels since 2007. We have also seen a decline in total housing inventory to the lowest levels since 2005.
Because commercial real estate transactions tend to be driven more by supply and demand for commercial space and occupancy rates in a particular area rather than by macroeconomic events, we believe that our commercial real estate title insurance business is less dependent on the industry cycles discussed above than our residential real estate title business. From 2010 to 2013, we have experienced an increase in fee per file of commercial transactions from the previous years, indicating improvement in the commercial markets.
Portfolio Company Investments
Remy
Remy manufactures and sells auto parts, principally starter motors and alternators, as well as hybrid electric motors and multi-line products, including steering gear, constant velocity (CV) axles, and brake calipers, for sale to original equipment manufacturers (OEM) and aftermarket customers. Remy manufactures products for automobiles as well as light and heavy duty commercial vehicles. The OEM market for auto parts is dependent on levels of new vehicle production, which in turn, is affected by the overall economy, consumer confidence, discounts and incentives offered by automakers and the availability of funds to finance purchases.
In its aftermarket operations, Remy's results are affected by the strength of the economy and by gas prices, but do not follow the same cycles as original equipment market sales. In a weaker economy, drivers tend to keep their vehicles and repair them rather than buying new vehicles. Lower gas prices have historically tended to result in more miles driven, which increases the frequency with which auto repairs are needed. Nevertheless, a weak economy also may reduce miles driven. Over the long term, improvements in the durability of original equipment and aftermarket parts has reduced, and is expected to further reduce, the number of units sold in the aftermarket. Aftermarket revenues are also affected by other factors, including severe weather (which tends to lead to increased sales) and competitive pressures. Many parts retailers and warehouse distributors purchase starters and alternators from only one or two suppliers, under contracts that run for five years or less. Pressure from customers to reduce prices is characteristic of the automotive supply industry. Remy is currently negotiating several customer agreements which are anticipated to be finalized during the first quarter of 2014. Due to the competitive nature of the business, the revised terms with customers are expected to impact Remy's ongoing profitability. Remy has taken and expects to continue to take steps to improve operating efficiencies and minimize or resist price reductions.
Restaurant Group
The restaurant industry is highly competitive and is often affected by changes in consumer tastes and discretionary spending patterns; changes in general economic conditions; public safety conditions or concerns; demographic trends; weather conditions; the cost of food products, labor, energy and other operating costs; and governmental regulations.  The restaurant industry is also characterized by high capital investments for new restaurants and relatively high fixed or semi-variable restaurant operating expenses.  Because of the high fixed and semi-variable expenses, changes in sales in existing restaurants are generally expected to significantly affect restaurant profitability because many restaurant costs and expenses are not expected to change at the same rate as sales.  Restaurant profitability can also be negatively affected by inflationary and regulatory increases in operating costs and other factors.  The most significant commodities that may affect our cost of food and beverage are beef, seafood, poultry, and dairy, which accounted for almost 44 percent of our overall cost of food and beverage in the past. Generally, temporary increases in these costs are not passed on to guests; however, in the past, we have adjusted menu prices to compensate for increased costs of a more permanent nature.
Average weekly sales per restaurant are typically higher in the first and fourth quarters than in other quarters, and we typically generate a disproportionate share of our earnings from operations in the first and fourth quarters. Holidays, severe weather and other disruptive conditions may impact sales volumes seasonally in some operating regions.
In 2010, the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act ("Affordable Care Act") was passed and becomes effective for businesses in 2014. In July 2013, compliance with the employer mandate and certain reporting requirements under the Affordable Care Act were delayed until January 1, 2015. We are continuing to assess the impact of the Affordable Care Act on our health care benefit costs. The imposition of any requirement that we provide health insurance benefits to employees that are more extensive

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than the health insurance benefits we currently provide, or the imposition of additional employer paid employment taxes on income earned by our employees, will have an adverse effect on our results of operations in the future, however, we do not expect the impact to materially affect our financial condition. The Affordable Care Act is likely to similarly affect the restaurant industry in general.  Additionally, our Restaurant Group and suppliers may also be affected by higher minimum wage and benefit standards, which could result in higher costs for goods and services supplied to us.
Our revenues in future periods will continue to be subject to these and other factors that are beyond our control and, as a result, are likely to fluctuate.
Critical Accounting Estimates
The accounting estimates described below are those we consider critical in preparing our Consolidated Financial Statements. Management is required to make estimates and assumptions that can affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities and disclosures with respect to contingent assets and liabilities at the date of the Consolidated Financial Statements and the reported amounts of revenues and expenses during the reporting period. Actual amounts could differ from those estimates. See Note A of Notes to the Consolidated Financial Statements for additional description of the significant accounting policies that have been followed in preparing our Consolidated Financial Statements.
Reserve for Title Claim Losses.  Title companies issue two types of policies, owner's and lender's policies, since both the new owner and the lender in real estate transactions want to know that their interest in the property is insured against certain title defects outlined in the policy. An owner's policy insures the buyer against such defects for as long as he or she owns the property (as well as against warranty claims arising out of the sale of the property by such owner). A lender's policy insures the priority of the lender's security interest over the claims that other parties may have in the property. The maximum amount of liability under a title insurance policy is generally the face amount of the policy plus the cost of defending the insured's title against an adverse claim, however, occasionally we do incur losses in excess of policy limits. While most non-title forms of insurance, including property and casualty, provide for the assumption of risk of loss arising out of unforeseen future events, title insurance serves to protect the policyholder from risk of loss for events that predate the issuance of the policy.
Unlike many other forms of insurance, title insurance requires only a one-time premium for continuous coverage until another policy is warranted due to changes in property circumstances arising from refinance, resale, additional liens, or other events. Unless we issue the subsequent policy, we receive no notice that our exposure under our policy has ended and, as a result, we are unable to track the actual terminations of our exposures.
Our reserve for title claim losses includes reserves for known claims as well as for losses that have been incurred but not yet reported to us (“IBNR”), net of recoupments. We reserve for each known claim based on our review of the estimated amount of the claim and the costs required to settle the claim. Reserves for IBNR claims are estimates that are established at the time the premium revenue is recognized and are based upon historical experience and other factors, including industry trends, claim loss history, legal environment, geographic considerations, and the types of policies written. We also reserve for losses arising from escrow title-related and other fees relating to closing and disbursement functions due to fraud or operational error.
The table below summarizes our reserves for known claims and incurred but not reported claims related to title insurance:
 
 
December 31, 2013

 
%
 
December 31, 2012
 
%
 
 
(in millions)
Known claims
 
$
240

 
14.7
%
 
$
286

 
16.4
%
IBNR
 
1,396

 
85.3

 
1,462

 
83.6

Total Reserve for Title Claim Losses
 
$
1,636

 
100.0
%
 
$
1,748

 
100.0
%
Although claims against title insurance policies can be reported relatively soon after the policy has been issued, claims may be reported many years later. Historically, approximately 60% of claims are paid within approximately five years of the policy being written. By their nature, claims are often complex, vary greatly in dollar amounts and are affected by economic and market conditions, as well as the legal environment existing at the time of settlement of the claims. Estimating future title loss payments is difficult because of the complex nature of title claims, the long periods of time over which claims are paid, significantly varying dollar amounts of individual claims and other factors.
Our process for recording our reserves for title claim losses begins with analysis of our loss provision rate. We forecast ultimate losses for each policy year based upon historical policy year loss emergence and development patterns and adjust these to reflect policy year and policy type differences which affect the timing, frequency and severity of claims. We also use a technique that relies on historical loss emergence and on a premium-based exposure measurement. The latter technique is particularly applicable to the most recent policy years, which have few reported claims relative to an expected ultimate claim volume. After considering historical claim losses, reporting patterns and current market information, and analyzing quantitative and qualitative data provided by our legal, claims and underwriting departments, we determine a loss provision rate, which is recorded as a percentage of current title premiums. This loss provision rate is set to provide for losses on current year policies, but due to development of prior years

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and our long claim duration, it periodically includes amounts of estimated adverse or positive development on prior years' policies.  Any significant adjustments to strengthen or release loss reserves resulting from the comparison with our actuarial analysis are made in addition to this loss provision rate.  We recorded our periodic loss provision rate at 7.0% of title premiums in 2013 and 2012 and 6.8% of title premiums in 2011. Of such amounts, 5.3%, 5.5% and 5.8% related to losses on policies written in the current year, and the remainder relates to developments on prior year policies. In 2013 and 2012, adverse development of prior year losses of $71 million or 1.7% of 2013 premium and $58 million or 1.5% of 2012 premium was accounted for in the loss provision rate. At each quarter end, our recorded reserve for title claim losses is initially the result of taking the prior recorded reserve for title claim losses, adding the current provision and subtracting actual paid claims, resulting in an amount that management then compares to the range of reasonable estimates provided by the actuarial calculation.
Due to the uncertainty inherent in the process and due to the judgment used by both management and our actuary, our ultimate liability may be greater or less than our carried reserves. If the recorded amount is within the actuarial range but not at the central estimate, we assess the position within the actuarial range by analysis of other factors in order to determine that the recorded amount is our best estimate. These factors, which are both qualitative and quantitative, can change from period to period, and include items such as current trends in the real estate industry (which we can assess, but for which there is a time lag in the development of the data used by our actuary), any adjustments from the actuarial estimates needed for the effects of unusually large or small claims, improvements in our claims management processes, and other cost saving measures. If the recorded amount is not within a reasonable range of our actuary's central estimate, we may have to record a charge or credit and reassess the loss provision rate on a go forward basis. We will continue to reassess the provision to be recorded in future periods consistent with this methodology.
The table below presents our title insurance loss development experience for the past three years:
 
2013
 
2012
 
2011
 
(In millions)
Beginning balance
$
1,748

 
$
1,913

 
$
2,211

Claims loss provision related to:


 


 


Current year
220

 
210

 
189

Prior years
71

 
58

 
33

Total title claims loss provision (1)
291

 
268

 
222

Claims paid, net of recoupments related to:
 

 
 

 
 

Current year
(9
)
 
(4
)
 
(10
)
Prior years
(394
)
 
(429
)
 
(510
)
Total title claims paid, net of recoupments
(403
)
 
(433
)
 
(520
)
Ending balance
$
1,636

 
$
1,748

 
$
1,913

Title premiums
$
4,152

 
$
3,833

 
$
3,257

_____________________
(1) Included in the provision for title claim losses in the 2012 period is an $11 million impairment recorded on an asset previously recouped as part of a claim settlement.
 
2013
 
2012
 
2011
Provision for claim losses as a percentage of title insurance premiums:
 

 
 

 
 

Current year
5.3
%
 
5.5
%
 
5.8
%
Prior years
1.7

 
1.5

 
1.0

Total provision
7.0
%
 
7.0
%
 
6.8
%
Actual claims payments are made up of loss payments and claims management expenses offset by recoupments and were as follows (in millions):
 
 
Loss Payments
 
Claims Management Expenses
 
Recoupments
 
Net Loss Payments
Year ending December 31, 2013
 
$
323

 
$
162

 
$
(82
)
 
$
403

Year ending December 31, 2012
 
345

 
182

 
(94
)
 
433

Year ending December 31, 2011
 
361

 
215

 
(56
)
 
520


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As of December 31, 2013, the recorded reserve for title insurance claims losses was $1.6 billion, which was approximately $0.07 billion below the central estimate provided by our actuary, but within the provided actuarial range of $1.5 billion to $1.8 billion. We believe that our recorded reserves are reasonable and represent our best estimate. In reaching this conclusion, we considered the following qualitative factors.
As noted above, our recorded reserves were below the mid-point of the range of our actuarial estimates as of December 31, 2013. Management is comfortable with our recorded position as we have seen significant positive developments in certain actuarial models relating primarily to the acceleration of claims processing and claims related expense development which are not given full weight in our actuary's consolidated model. Claims management expenses have decreased due to management initiatives related to use of outside counsel and their fees and additional use of internal counsel in handling claims matters. These developments are not yet fully reflected in our actuarial analysis. This positive development in claims management expenses has been somewhat offset by claim loss payments that were greater than the claims projected to be paid in the model utilized by our actuary primarily related to the high volume policy years 2005-2008. We believe that this development related to the fact that these policy years have higher loss ratios and that the reporting of these claims has been accelerated. The reasons for higher loss payments and payment acceleration are as follows:
Historical high prices for real estate (thus higher policy limits as compared to premiums earned)
Increased volume of real estate transactions increased likelihood of errors in the examination and closing process
Increased values and volumes of real estate transactions and weaker loan underwriting standards increased the likelihood of fraudulent transactions
Subsequent declines in home equity values resulted in lender losses that would not have been losses had home equity been maintained
Increased foreclosures resulted in higher litigation costs and acceleration in reporting of claims
Increased exposure to mechanic lien claims from failures of builders and developers 
Some traditional actuarial methods, such as paid loss development, are particularly sensitive to distortions in payment activity. We believe that the high level of foreclosure activity over the past four years is accelerating the reporting of claims, particularly lender claims, thereby increasing paid losses and expenses. As a result, a paid loss development approach may temporarily overstate ultimate cost projections. We believe that losses and expenses related to this accelerated claims activity, specifically losses relating to lender policies, will have a shorter duration and that expected payments relating to these policy years will eventually return to or perhaps even drop below historical levels. We have also seen positive development relating to the 2009 through 2013 policy years, which we believe is indicative of more stringent underwriting standards by us and the lending industry. In addition we have seen significant positive development in residential owners policies due to increased payments on residential lenders policies which inherently limit the potential loss on the related owners policy to the differential in coverage amount between the amount insured under the owner's policy and the amount paid under the residential lender's policy. Also, any residential lender policy claim paid relating to a property that is in foreclosure negates any potential loss under an owner's policy previously issued on the property as the owner has no equity in the property. Along with the positive development on claims management expenses, our ending open claim inventory decreased from approximately 30,000 claims at December 31, 2012 to approximately 24,000 claims at December 31, 2013. If actual claims loss development is worse than currently expected and is not offset by other positive factors, such as continued improvement in claims management expenses and the other factors mentioned above, it is reasonably possible that our recorded reserves may fall outside a reasonable range of our actuary's central estimate, which may require additional reserve strengthening in future periods.
As of December 31, 2012 and 2011, our recorded reserves were $1.7 billion and $1.9 billion, which we determined were reasonable and represented our best estimate and these recorded amounts were within a reasonable range of the central estimates provided by our actuaries.
An approximate $42 million increase (decrease) in our annualized provision for title claim losses would occur if our loss provision rate were 1% higher (lower), based on 2013 title premiums of $4,152 million. A 10% increase (decrease) in our reserve for title claim losses, as of December 31, 2013, would result in an increase (decrease) in our provision for title claim losses of approximately $164 million.
Valuation of Investments.  We regularly review our investment portfolio for factors that may indicate that a decline in fair value of an investment is other-than-temporary. Some factors considered in evaluating whether or not a decline in fair value is other-than-temporary include: (i) our intent and need to sell the investment prior to a period of time sufficient to allow for a recovery in value; (ii) the duration and extent to which the fair value has been less than cost; and (iii) the financial condition and prospects of the issuer. Such reviews are inherently uncertain and the value of the investment may not fully recover or may decline in future periods resulting in a realized loss. Investments are selected for analysis whenever an unrealized loss is greater than a certain threshold that we determine based on the size of our portfolio or by using other qualitative factors. Fixed maturity investments that have unrealized losses caused by interest rate movements are not at risk as we do not anticipate having the need or intent to sell prior to maturity. Unrealized losses on investments in equity securities, preferred stock and fixed maturity instruments that

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are susceptible to credit related declines are evaluated based on the aforementioned factors. Currently available market data is considered and estimates are made as to the duration and prospects for recovery, and the intent or ability to retain the investment until such recovery takes place. These estimates are revisited quarterly and any material degradation in the prospect for recovery will be considered in the other-than-temporary impairment analysis. We believe that our monitoring and analysis has provided for the proper recognition of other-than-temporary impairments over the past three-year period. Any change in estimate in this area will have an impact on the results of operations of the period in which a charge is taken.
The fair value hierarchy established by the standard on fair value includes three levels, which are based on the priority of the inputs to the valuation technique. The fair value hierarchy gives the highest priority to quoted prices in active markets for identical assets or liabilities (Level 1) and the lowest priority to unobservable inputs (Level 3). If the inputs used to measure the financial instruments fall within different levels of the hierarchy, the categorization is based on the lowest level input that is significant to the fair value measurement of the instrument.
In accordance with the standard on fair value, our financial assets and liabilities that are recorded in the Consolidated Balance Sheets are categorized based on the inputs to the valuation techniques as follows:
Level 1.  Financial assets and liabilities whose values are based on unadjusted quoted prices for identical assets or liabilities in an active market that we have the ability to access.
Level 2.  Financial assets and liabilities whose values are based on quoted prices in markets that are not active or model inputs that are observable either directly or indirectly for substantially the full term of the asset or liability.
Level 3.  Financial assets and liabilities whose values are based on model inputs that are unobservable.
The following table presents our fair value hierarchy for those assets and liabilities measured at fair value on a recurring basis as of December 31, 2013 and 2012, respectively:
 
December 31, 2013
 
Level 1
 
Level 2
 
Level 3
 
Total
 
(In millions)
Assets:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Fixed-maturity securities available for sale:
 

 
 

 
 

 
 

U.S. government and agencies
$

 
$
126

 
$

 
$
126

State and political subdivisions

 
1,075

 

 
1,075

Corporate debt securities

 
1,606

 

 
1,606

Foreign government bonds

 
43

 

 
43

Mortgage-backed/asset-backed securities

 
109

 

 
109

Preferred stock available for sale
73

 
78

 

 
151

Equity securities available for sale
136

 

 

 
136

Other long-term investments

 

 
38

 
38

Foreign exchange contracts

 
4

 

 
4

Interest rate swap contracts

 
2

 

 
2

     Total assets
$
209

 
$
3,043

 
$
38

 
$
3,290

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Liabilities:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Commodity contracts
$

 
$
2

 
$

 
$
2

Interest rate swap contracts

 
1

 

 
1

     Total liabilities
$

 
$
3

 
$

 
$
3




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Table of Contents

 
December 31, 2012
 
Level 1
 
Level 2
 
Level 3
 
Total
 
(In millions)
Fixed-maturity securities available for sale:
 

 
 

 
 

 
 

U.S. government and agencies
$

 
$
139

 
$

 
$
139

State and political subdivisions

 
1,300

 

 
1,300

Corporate debt securities

 
1,499

 

 
1,499

Foreign government bonds

 
48

 

 
48

Mortgage-backed/asset-backed securities

 
154

 

 
154

Preferred stock available for sale
109

 
108

 

 
217

Equity securities available for sale
138

 

 

 
138

Other long-term investments

 

 
41

 
41

Foreign exchange contracts

 
6

 

 
6

Commodity contracts

 
1

 

 
1

     Total
$
247

 
$
3,255

 
$
41

 
$
3,543

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Liabilities:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Commodity contracts
$

 
$
2

 
$

 
$
2

     Total liabilities
$

 
$
2

 
$

 
$
2


Our Level 2 fair value measures for fixed-maturities available for sale are provided by third-party pricing services. We utilize one firm for our taxable bond and preferred stock portfolio and another for our tax-exempt bond portfolio. These pricing services are leading global providers of financial market data, analytics and related services to financial institutions. We rely on one price for each instrument to determine the carrying amount of the assets on our balance sheet. The inputs utilized in these pricing methodologies include observable measures such as benchmark yields, reported trades, broker dealer quotes, issuer spreads, two sided markets, benchmark securities, bids, offers and reference data including market research publications. We review the pricing methodologies for all of our Level 2 securities by obtaining an understanding of the valuation models and assumptions used by the third-party as well as independently comparing the resulting prices to other publicly available measures of fair value and internally developed models. The pricing methodologies used by the relevant third party pricing services are:
U.S. government and agencies: These securities are valued based on data obtained for similar securities in active markets and from inter-dealer brokers.
State and political subdivisions: These securities are valued based on data obtained for similar securities in active markets and from inter-dealer brokers. Factors considered include relevant trade information, dealer quotes and other relevant market data.
Corporate debt securities: These securities are valued based on dealer quotes and related market trading activity. Factors considered include the bond's yield, its terms and conditions, or any other feature which may influence its risk and thus marketability, as well as relative credit information and relevant sector news.
Foreign government bonds: These securities are valued based on a discounted cash flow model incorporating observable market inputs such as available broker quotes and yields of comparable securities.
Mortgage-backed/asset-backed securities: These securities are comprised of commercial mortgage-backed securities, agency mortgage-backed securities, collaterized mortgage obligations, and asset-backed securities. They are valued based on available trade information, dealer quotes, cash flows, relevant indices and market data for similar assets in active markets.
Preferred stock: Preferred stocks are valued by calculating the appropriate spread over a comparable US Treasury security. Inputs include benchmark quotes and other relevant market data.  
Our Level 2 fair value measures for our interest rate swap, foreign exchange contracts, and commodity contracts are valued using the income approach. This approach uses techniques to convert future amounts to a single present value amount based upon market expectations (including present value techniques, option-pricing and excess earnings models).
Our Level 3 investments consist of structured notes that were purchased in the third quarter of 2009. The structured notes had a par value of $38 million at December 31, 2013 and 2012, and fair value of $38 million and $41 million at December 31, 2013 and 2012, respectively. The structured notes are held for general investment purposes and represent one percent of our total investment portfolio. The structured notes are classified as Other long-term investments and are measured in their entirety at fair

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value with changes in fair value recognized in earnings. The fair value of these instruments are the product of a proprietary valuation model utilized by the trading desk of the broker-dealer and contain assumptions relating to volatility, the level of interest rates, and the underlying value of the indexes, exchange-traded funds, and foreign currencies. We review the pricing methodologies for our Level 3 investments to ensure that they are reasonable and believe they represent an exit price as of December 31, 2013.
During the years ended December 31, 2013, 2012 and 2011, we incurred impairment charges relating to investments that were determined to be other-than-temporarily impaired, which resulted in impairment charges of $1 million, $3 million, and $17 million, respectively. Impairment charges during all three years, related to fixed maturity securities primarily related to our conclusion that the credit risk of these holdings was high and the ability of the issuer to pay the full amount of the principal outstanding was unlikely.
Included in our Investments as of December 31, 2013 are various holdings in Foreign securities as follows (in millions):
 
Carrying
Value
 
Cost Basis
 
Unrealized
Gains
 
Unrealized
Losses
 
Fair
Value
 
(In millions)
Available for sale securities:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Australia
$
50

 
$
48

 
$
2

 
$

 
$
50

Belgium
19

 
18

 
1

 

 
19

Canada
60

 
61

 
1

 
(2
)
 
60

France
6

 
6

 

 

 
6

Germany
33

 
33

 

 

 
33

Ireland
14

 
14

 

 

 
14

Japan
31

 
31

 

 

 
31

Netherlands
20

 
20

 

 

 
20

Norway
2

 
2