FNF 12.31.11 10-K
 
 
 
 
 
UNITED STATES SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
Washington, D.C. 20549
Form 10-K
(Mark One)
 
R
ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
 
For the Fiscal Year Ended December 31, 2011
or
o
TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
  Commission File No. 1-32630
 _________________________________
 Fidelity National Financial, Inc.
(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)
Delaware
 
16-1725106
(State or other jurisdiction of incorporation or organization)
 
(I.R.S. Employer Identification No.)
 
 
 
601 Riverside Avenue
Jacksonville, Florida 32204
 (Address of principal executive offices, including zip code)
 
(904) 854-8100
 (Registrant’s telephone number,
including area code) 
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:
Title of Each Class
 
Name of Each Exchange on Which Registered
Common Stock, $0.0001 par value
 
New York Stock Exchange
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act: None
 
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act.  Yes R     No o
 
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Act.  Yes o     No R
 
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days.  Yes R     No o
 
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically and posted on its corporate Web site, if any, every Interactive Data File required to be submitted and posted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§ 232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit and post such files).  Yes R    No o
 
Indicate by check mark if disclosure of delinquent filers pursuant to Item 405 of Regulation S-K (§ 229.405) is not contained herein, and will not be contained, to the best of registrant’s knowledge, in definitive proxy or information statements incorporated by reference in Part III of this Form 10-K, or any amendment to this Form 10-K.  o
 
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, or a smaller reporting company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer” and “smaller reporting company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act. (Check one):
Large accelerated filer R
 
     Accelerated filer o
 
Non-accelerated filer o
(Do not check if a smaller reporting company)  
 
Smaller reporting company o
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act).  Yes o     No R
 
The aggregate market value of the shares of the common stock held by non-affiliates of the registrant as of June 30, 2011 was $3,332,281,166 based on the closing price of $15.74 as reported by the New York Stock Exchange.
 
As of January 31, 2012, there were 221,572,801 shares of Common Stock outstanding.
 
The information in Part III hereof is incorporated herein by reference to the registrant's Proxy Statement on Schedule 14A for the fiscal year ended December 31, 2011, to be filed within 120 days after the close of the fiscal year that is the subject of this Report.d
 
 
 
 
 



FIDELITY NATIONAL FINANCIAL, INC.
FORM 10-K
TABLE OF CONTENTS

 
 
Page
Number
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 


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PART I

Item 1.
Business 

We are a holding company that through our subsidiaries provides title insurance, mortgage services and diversified services. We are the nation’s largest title insurance company through our title insurance underwriters — Fidelity National Title, Chicago Title, Commonwealth Land Title, and Alamo Title — which collectively issued more title insurance policies in 2011 than any other title company in the United States. We own a minority interest in Ceridian Corporation (“Ceridian”), a leading provider of global human capital management and payment solutions. We also own a minority interest in Remy International, Inc. (“Remy”), a leading designer, manufacturer, remanufacturer, marketer and distributor of aftermarket and original equipment electrical components for automobiles, light trucks, heavy-duty trucks and other vehicles; and American Blue Ribbon Holdings, LLC, an owner and operator of the Village Inn, Bakers Square and Max & Erma's restaurants.

During 2010, we completed a project to reduce the number of our title insurance underwriters in order to eliminate certain legal, operating and oversight costs associated with operating multiple separate and independent underwriters. Our remaining four principal title insurance underwriters are Fidelity National Title, Chicago Title, Commonwealth Land Title, and Alamo Title. Security Union Title and Ticor Title were merged into Chicago Title. Lawyers Title was merged into Fidelity National Title.
We currently have two reporting segments as follows:
Fidelity National Title Group. This segment consists of the operations of FNF’s title insurance underwriters and related businesses. This segment provides core title insurance and escrow and other title related services including collection and trust activities, trustee’s sales guarantees, recordings and reconveyances, and home warranty insurance.
Corporate and Other.  The corporate and other segment consists of the operations of the parent holding company, certain other unallocated corporate overhead expenses, other smaller operations, and our share in the operations of certain equity investments, including Ceridian and Remy.
Competitive Strengths
We believe that our competitive strengths include the following:
Leading title insurance company.  We are the largest title insurance company in the United States and a leading provider of title insurance and escrow and other title-related services for real estate transactions. Through the third quarter of 2011, our insurance companies had a 35% share of the U.S. title insurance market, according to the American Land Title Association ("ALTA").
Established relationships with our customers.  We have strong relationships with the customers who use our title services. Our distribution network, which includes over 1,100 direct residential title offices and over 5,000 agents, is among the largest in the United States. We also benefit from strong brand recognition in our multiple title brands that allows us to access a broader client base than if we operated under a single consolidated brand and provides our customers with a choice among brands.
Strong value proposition for our customers.  We provide our customers with title insurance and escrow and other title-related services that support their ability to effectively close real estate transactions. We help make the real estate closing more efficient for our customers by offering a single point of access to a broad platform of title-related products and resources necessary to close real estate transactions.
 Proven management team.  The managers of our operating businesses have successfully built our title business over an extended period of time, resulting in our business attaining the size, scope and presence in the industry that it has today. Our managers have demonstrated their leadership ability during numerous acquisitions through which we have grown and throughout a number of business cycles and significant periods of industry change.
 Competitive cost structure.  We have been able to maintain competitive operating margins in part by monitoring our businesses in a disciplined manner through continual evaluation of order activity and management of our cost structure. When compared to our industry competitors, we also believe that our structure is more efficiently designed which allows us to operate with lower overhead costs.
 Commercial title insurance.  While residential title insurance comprises the majority of our business, we believe that we are the largest provider of commercial real estate title insurance in the United States. Our network of agents, attorneys, underwriters and closers that service the commercial real estate markets is one of the largest in the industry. Our commercial network combined with our financial strength makes our title insurance operations attractive to large national lenders that require the underwriting and issuing of larger commercial title policies.

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Corporate principles.  A cornerstone of our management philosophy and operating success is the six fundamental precepts upon which we were founded, which are:
Autonomy and entrepreneurship;
Bias for action;
Customer-oriented and motivated;
Minimize bureaucracy;
Employee ownership; and
Highest standard of conduct.
 These six precepts are emphasized to our employees from the first day of employment and are integral to many of our strategies described below.
We believe that our competitive strengths position us well to take advantage of any improvements in the real estate market in future years.
Strategy
 Fidelity National Title Group
Our strategy in the title insurance business is to maximize operating profits by increasing our market share and managing operating expenses throughout the real estate business cycle. To accomplish our goals, we intend to:
Continue to operate multiple title brands independently.  We believe that in order to maintain and strengthen our title insurance customer base, we must operate our strongest brands in a given marketplace independently of each other. Our national and regional brands include Fidelity National Title, Chicago Title, Commonwealth Land Title, Lawyers Title, Ticor Title, and Alamo Title. In our largest markets, we operate multiple brands. This approach allows us to continue to attract customers who identify with a particular brand and allows us to utilize a broader base of local agents and local operations than we would have with a single consolidated brand.
Consistently deliver superior customer service.  We believe customer service and consistent product delivery are the most important factors in attracting and retaining customers. Our ability to provide superior customer service and provide consistent product delivery requires continued focus on providing high quality service and products at competitive prices. Our goal is to continue to improve the experience of our customers, in all aspects of our business.
Manage our operations successfully through business cycles.  We operate in a cyclical industry and our ability to diversify our revenue base within our core title insurance business and manage the duration of our investments may allow us to better operate in this cyclical business. Maintaining a broad geographic revenue base, utilizing both direct and independent agency operations and pursuing both residential and commercial title insurance business help diversify our title insurance revenues. We continue to monitor, evaluate and execute upon the consolidation of administrative functions, legal entity structure, and office consolidation, as necessary, to respond to the continually changing marketplace. We maintain shorter durations on our investment portfolio to mitigate our interest rate risk and, in a rising interest rate environment, to increase our investment revenue, which may offset some of the decline in premiums and service revenues we would expect in such an environment. A more detailed discussion of our investment strategies is included in “Investment Policies and Investment Portfolio.”
Continue to improve our products and technology.  As a national provider of real estate transaction products and services, we participate in an industry that is subject to significant change, frequent new product and service introductions and evolving industry standards. We believe that our future success will depend in part on our ability to anticipate industry changes and offer products and services that meet evolving industry standards. In connection with our service offerings, we are continuing to deploy new information system technologies to our direct and agency operations. We expect to improve the process of ordering title and escrow services and improve the delivery of our products to our customers.
Maintain values supporting our strategy.  We believe that our continued focus on and support of our long-established corporate culture will reinforce and support our business strategy. Our goal is to foster and support a corporate culture where our employees and agents seek to operate independently and profitably at the local level while forming close customer relationships by meeting customer needs and improving customer service. Utilizing a relatively flat managerial structure and providing our employees with a sense of individual ownership supports this goal.

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Effectively manage costs based on economic factors.  We believe that our focus on our operating margins is essential to our continued success in the title insurance business. Regardless of the business cycle in which we may be operating, we seek to continue to evaluate and manage our cost structure and make appropriate adjustments where economic conditions dictate. This continual focus on our cost structure helps us to better maintain our operating margins.
Acquisitions, Dispositions, Minority Owned Operating Subsidiaries and Financings
Acquisitions have been an important part of our growth strategy. On an ongoing basis, with assistance from our advisors, we actively evaluate possible transactions, such as acquisitions and dispositions of business units and operating assets and business combination transactions, as well as possible means of financing the growth and operations of our business units or raising funds, through securities offerings or otherwise, for debt repayment or other purposes. In the current economic environment, we may seek to sell certain investments or other assets to increase our liquidity. Further, our management has stated that we may make acquisitions in lines of business that are not directly tied to or synergistic with our core operating segments. There can be no assurance, however, that any suitable opportunities will arise or that any particular transaction will be completed. We have made a number of acquisitions over the past three years to strengthen and expand our service offerings and customer base in our various businesses, to expand into other businesses or where we otherwise saw value.

On February 5, 2012, we entered into a definitive agreement to acquire all of the outstanding shares of common stock of O'Charley's Inc., which operates more than 340 full-service restaurants under the O'Charley's, Ninety Nine and Stoney River Legendary Steaks concepts, that we do not currently own for $9.85 per share in cash. O'Charley's Inc. had 21,967,041 shares outstanding as of December 31, 2011. We own 2,079,542 or 9.5% of the outstanding shares of O'Charley's Inc. common stock prior to the tender offer. The transaction is expected to close in May 2012 and is subject to successful completion of the tender and other customary closing conditions.

On December 27, 2011, we entered into a definitive agreement under which we will sell an 85% interest in our remaining subsidiaries that write personal lines insurance to WT Holdings, Inc. for approximately $119.0 million. The sales price is subject to typical closing adjustments based on working capital and surplus. The transaction is expected to close by the second quarter of 2012 and is subject to regulatory approval and closing conditions. Accordingly, the results of this business (which we refer to as our "at-risk" insurance business) for all periods presented are reflected as discontinued operations. The at-risk insurance business sale is expected to result in a pre-tax loss of approximately $15.1 million, which was recorded in the fourth quarter of 2011. See note A of the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements for further details on this transaction.

On October 31, 2011, we completed the sale of our flood insurance business to WRM America Holdings LLC for $135.0 million in cash and dividends, and a $75.0 million seller note. The seller note has an eight percent annual interest coupon, with interest payable quarterly and principal payable in full eighteen months subsequent to closing. Accordingly, the results of the flood insurance business for all periods presented are reflected as discontinued operations. The flood insurance business sale resulted in a pre-tax gain of approximately $154.1 million. See note A of the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements for further details on this transaction.

On May 28, 2010, we completed the sale of our 32% interest in Sedgwick, our former minority-owned affiliate that provides claims management services to large corporate and public sector entities, to a group of private equity funds. We received approximately $225.6 million in proceeds, of which $32.0 million was held in an indemnity escrow and received in 2011, for our ownership interest, resulting in a pre-tax gain of approximately $98.4 million in 2010.
Title Insurance
Market for title insurance.  While we saw declines from 2007-2010 in the title insurance market in the United States, the market remains large having grown significantly from 1995 until 2005. According to Demotech Performance of Title Insurance Companies 2011 Edition, an annual compilation of financial information from the title insurance industry that is published by Demotech Inc., an independent firm ("Demotech"), total operating income for the entire U.S. title insurance industry grew from $4.8 billion in 1995 to its highest at $17.8 billion in 2005 and then decreased to $15.2 billion in 2007, $11.3 billion in 2008, $10.7 billion in 2009, and to $10.5 billion in 2010. Growth in the industry is closely tied to various macroeconomic factors, including, but not limited to, growth in the gross domestic product, inflation, unemployment, the availability of credit, consumer confidence, interest rates and sales of and prices for new and existing homes, as well as the volume of refinancing of previously issued mortgages.
Most real estate transactions consummated in the U.S. require the use of title insurance by a lending institution before the transaction can be completed. Generally, revenues from title insurance policies are directly correlated with the value of the property underlying the title policy, and appreciation or depreciation in the overall value of the real estate market are major factors in total industry revenues. Industry revenues are also driven by factors affecting the volume of real estate closings, such as the state of

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the economy, the availability of mortgage funding, and changes in interest rates, which affect demand for new mortgage loans and refinancing transactions. Both the volume and the average price of residential real estate transactions have experienced significant declines over the past five years. Beginning in 2008 and continuing through 2011, the mortgage delinquency and default rates caused negative operating results at a number of banks and financial institutions. Multiple banks have failed during this time and others may fail in the future, reducing the capacity of the mortgage industry to make loans. Lenders have tightened their underwriting standards which has made it more difficult for buyers to qualify for new loans. However, during this same period, interest rates were at historically low levels, which spurred an increase in refinance activity in 2009 - 2011. Our revenues in future periods will continue to be subject to these and other factors which are beyond our control and, as a result, are likely to fluctuate.
 The U.S. title insurance industry is concentrated among a handful of industry participants. According to Demotech the top four title insurance groups accounted for 89.0% of net premiums written in 2010. Over 30 independent title insurance companies accounted for the remaining 11.0% of net premiums written in 2010. Over the years, the title insurance industry has been consolidating, beginning with the merger of Lawyers Title Insurance Company (Lawyers) and Commonwealth Land Title Insurance Company (Commonwealth) in 1998 to create LandAmerica Financial Group (LFG), followed by our acquisition of Chicago Title in March 2000. Then, in December 2008, we acquired LFG’s two principal title insurance underwriters, Commonwealth and Lawyers (the "LFG Underwriters"). Consolidation has created opportunities for increased financial and operating efficiencies for the industry’s largest participants and should continue to drive profitability and market share in the industry.
Title Insurance Policies.  Generally, real estate buyers and mortgage lenders purchase title insurance to insure good and marketable title to real estate and priority of lien. A brief generalized description of the process of issuing a title insurance policy is as follows:
The customer, typically a real estate salesperson or broker, escrow agent, attorney or lender, places an order for a title policy.
Company personnel note the specifics of the title policy order and place a request with the title company or its agents for a preliminary report or commitment.
After the relevant historical data on the property is compiled, the title officer prepares a preliminary report that documents the current status of title to the property, any exclusions, exceptions and/or limitations that the title company might include in the policy, and specific issues that need to be addressed and resolved by the parties to the transaction before the title policy will be issued.
The preliminary report is circulated to all the parties for satisfaction of any specific issues.
After the specific issues identified in the preliminary report are satisfied, an escrow agent closes the transaction in accordance with the instructions of the parties and the title company’s conditions.
Once the transaction is closed and all monies have been released, the title company issues a title insurance policy.
In a real estate transaction financed with a mortgage, virtually all real property mortgage lenders require their borrowers to obtain a title insurance policy at the time a mortgage loan is made. This lender’s policy insures the lender against any defect affecting the priority of the mortgage in an amount equal to the outstanding balance of the related mortgage loan. An owner’s policy is typically also issued, insuring the buyer against defects in title in an amount equal to the purchase price. In a refinancing transaction, only a lender’s policy is generally purchased because ownership of the property has not changed. In the case of an all-cash real estate purchase, no lender’s policy is issued but typically an owner’s title policy is issued.
 Title insurance premiums paid in connection with a title insurance policy are based on (and typically a percentage of) either the amount of the mortgage loan or the purchase price of the property insured. Applicable state insurance regulations or regulatory practices may limit the maximum, or in some cases the minimum, premium that can be charged on a policy. Title insurance premiums are due in full at the closing of the real estate transaction. The lender’s policy generally terminates upon the refinancing or resale of the property.
The amount of the insured risk or “face amount” of insurance under a title insurance policy is generally equal to either the amount of the loan secured by the property or the purchase price of the property. The title insurer is also responsible for the cost of defending the insured title against covered claims. The insurer’s actual exposure at any given time, however, generally is less than the total face amount of policies outstanding because the coverage of a lender’s policy is reduced and eventually terminated as a result of payment of the mortgage loan. A title insurer also generally does not know when a property has been sold or refinanced except when it issues the replacement coverage. Because of these factors, the total liability of a title underwriter on outstanding policies cannot be precisely determined.
Title insurance companies typically issue title insurance policies directly through branch offices or through affiliated title

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agencies, or indirectly through independent third party agencies unaffiliated with the title insurance company. Where the policy is issued through a branch or wholly-owned subsidiary agency operation, the title insurance company typically performs or directs the title search, and the premiums collected are retained by the title company. Where the policy is issued through an independent agent, the agent generally performs the title search (in some areas searches are performed by approved attorneys), examines the title, collects the premium and retains a majority of the premium. The remainder of the premium is remitted to the title insurance company as compensation, part of which is for bearing the risk of loss in the event a claim is made under the policy. The percentage of the premium retained by an agent varies from region to region and is sometimes regulated by the states. The title insurance company is obligated to pay title claims in accordance with the terms of its policies, regardless of whether the title insurance company issues policies through its direct operations or through independent agents.
 Prior to issuing policies, title insurers and their agents attempt to reduce the risk of future claim losses by accurately performing title searches and examinations. A title insurance company’s predominant expense relates to such searches and examinations, the preparation of preliminary title reports, policies or commitments, the maintenance of "title plants,” which are indexed compilations of public records, maps and other relevant historical documents, and the facilitation and closing of real estate transactions. Claim losses generally result from errors made in the title search and examination process, from hidden defects such as fraud, forgery, incapacity, or missing heirs of the property, and from closing related errors.
Residential real estate business results from the construction, sale, resale and refinancing of residential properties, while commercial real estate business results from similar activities with respect to properties with a business or commercial use. Commercial real estate title insurance policies insure title to commercial real property, and generally involve higher coverage amounts and yield higher premiums. Residential real estate transaction volume is primarily affected by macroeconomic and seasonal factors while commercial real estate transaction volume is affected primarily by fluctuations in local supply and demand conditions for commercial space.
Direct and Agency Operations.  We provide title insurance services through our direct operations and through independent title insurance agents who issue title policies on behalf of our title insurance companies. Our title insurance companies determine the terms and conditions upon which they will insure title to the real property according to their underwriting standards, policies and procedures.
Direct Operations.  In our direct operations, the title insurer issues the title insurance policy and retains the entire premium paid in connection with the transaction. Our direct operations provide the following benefits:
higher margins because we retain the entire premium from each transaction instead of paying a commission to an independent agent;
continuity of service levels to a broad range of customers; and
additional sources of income through escrow and closing services.
We have over 1,100 offices throughout the U.S. primarily providing residential real estate title insurance. During 2008 and 2009, as title insurance activity slowed, we closed and consolidated a number of our offices. We continuously monitor the number of direct offices to make sure that it remains in line with our strategy and the current economic environment. Our commercial real estate title insurance business is operated almost exclusively through our direct operations. We maintain direct operations for our commercial title insurance business in all the major real estate markets including New York, Los Angeles, Chicago, Atlanta, Dallas, Philadelphia, Phoenix, Seattle and Houston.
 Agency Operations.  In our agency operations, the search and examination function is performed by an independent agent or the agent may purchase the search and examination from us. In either case, the agent is responsible to ensure that the search and examination is completed. The agent thus retains the majority of the title premium collected, with the balance remitted to the title underwriter for bearing the risk of loss in the event that a claim is made under the title insurance policy. Independent agents may select among several title underwriters based upon their relationship with the underwriter, the amount of the premium “split” offered by the underwriter, the overall terms and conditions of the agency agreement and the scope of services offered to the agent. Premium splits vary by geographic region, and in some states are fixed by insurance regulatory requirements. Our relationship with each agent is governed by an agency agreement defining how the agent issues a title insurance policy on our behalf. The agency agreement also sets forth the agent’s liability to us for policy losses attributable to the agent’s errors. An agency agreement is usually terminable without cause upon 30 days notice or immediately for cause. In determining whether to engage or retain an independent agent, we consider the agent’s experience, financial condition and loss history. For each agent with whom we enter into an agency agreement, we maintain financial and loss experience records. We also conduct periodic audits of our agents and periodically decrease the number of agents with which we transact business in an effort to reduce future expenses and manage risks. As of December 31, 2011, we transact business with over 5,000 agents.

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 Fees and Premiums.  One method of analyzing our business is to examine the level of premiums generated by direct and agency operations.
The following table presents the percentages of our title insurance premiums generated by direct and agency operations:
 
Year Ended December 31,
 
2011
 
2010
 
2009
 
Amount
 
%
 
Amount
 
%
 
Amount
 
%
 
(Dollars in millions)
Direct
$
1,431.5

 
43.9
%
 
$
1,404.5

 
38.6
%
 
$
1,475.3

 
37.6
%
Agency
1,829.6

 
56.1

 
2,236.7

 
61.4

 
2,452.3

 
62.4

     Total title insurance premiums
$
3,261.1

 
100.0
%
 
$
3,641.2

 
100.0
%
 
$
3,927.6

 
100.0
%
 The premium for title insurance is due in full when the real estate transaction is closed. We recognize title insurance premium revenues from direct operations upon the closing of the transaction, whereas premium revenues from agency operations include an accrual based on estimates of the volume of transactions that have closed in a particular period for which premiums have not yet been reported to us. The accrual for agency premiums is necessary because of the lag between the closing of these transactions and the reporting of these policies to us by the agent, and is based on estimates utilizing historical information.
Geographic Operations.  Our direct operations are divided into approximately 150 profit centers. Each profit center processes title insurance transactions within its geographical area, which is usually identified by a county, a group of counties forming a region, or a state, depending on the management structure in that part of the country. We also transact title insurance business through a network of over 5,000 agents, primarily in those areas in which agents are the more prevalent title insurance provider.
The following table sets forth the approximate dollar and percentage volumes of our title insurance premium revenue by state.
 
Year Ended December 31,
 
2011
 
2010
 
2009
 
Amount
 
%
 
Amount
 
%
 
Amount
 
%
 
(Dollars in millions)
California
$
515.3

 
15.8
%
 
$
570.0

 
15.7
%
 
$
691.3

 
17.6
%
Texas
401.2

 
12.3

 
412.1

 
11.3

 
406.1

 
10.3

New York
262.9

 
8.0

 
284.4

 
7.8

 
272.5

 
6.9

Florida
214.2

 
6.6

 
226.5

 
6.2

 
224.7

 
5.7

Illinois
149.2

 
4.6

 
156.9

 
4.3

 
114.0

 
2.9

All others
1,718.3

 
52.7

 
1,991.3

 
54.7

 
2,219.0

 
56.6

Totals
$
3,261.1

 
100.0
%
 
$
3,641.2

 
100.0
%
 
$
3,927.6

 
100.0
%
Escrow, Title-Related and Other Fees.  In addition to fees for underwriting title insurance policies, we derive a significant amount of our revenues from escrow, title-related and other services, including closing services. The escrow and other services provided by us include all of those typically required in connection with residential and commercial real estate purchases and refinance activities, as well as default and appraisal services. Escrow, title-related and other fees represented approximately 29.5%, 25.9%, and 25.8% of our revenues in 2011, 2010, and 2009, respectively.
Sales and Marketing
We market and distribute our title and escrow products and services to customers in the residential and commercial market sectors of the real estate industry through customer solicitation by sales personnel. Although in many instances the individual homeowner is the beneficiary of a title insurance policy, we do not focus our marketing efforts on the homeowner. We actively encourage our sales personnel to develop new business relationships with persons in the real estate community, such as real estate sales agents and brokers, financial institutions, independent escrow companies and title agents, real estate developers, mortgage brokers and attorneys who order title insurance policies for their clients. While our smaller, local clients remain important, large customers, such as national residential mortgage lenders, real estate investment trusts and developers are an important part of our business. The buying criteria of locally based clients differ from those of large, geographically diverse customers in that the former tend to emphasize personal relationships and ease of transaction execution, while the latter generally place more emphasis on consistent product delivery across diverse geographical regions and the ability of service providers to meet their information

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systems requirements for electronic product delivery.
Claims
 An important part of our operations is the handling of title and escrow claims. We employ a staff of approximately 550 employees in our claims department, over 250 of which are attorneys. We also use the services of outside attorneys. Our claims processing centers are located in Omaha, Nebraska and Jacksonville, Florida. In-house claims counsel who handle larger claims are also located in other parts of the country.
 Claims result from a wide range of causes. These causes generally include, but are not limited to, search and exam errors, forgeries, incorrect legal descriptions, signature and notary errors, unrecorded liens, mechanics’ liens, the failure to pay off existing liens, mortgage lending fraud, mishandling or theft of settlement funds (including independent agency defalcations), and mistakes in the escrow process. Under our policies, we are required to defend insureds when covered claims are filed against their interest in the property. Some claimants seek damages in excess of policy limits. Those claims are based on various legal theories, including in some cases allegations of negligence or an intentional tort. We occasionally incur losses in excess of policy limits. Experience shows that most policy claims and claim payments are made in the first six years after the policy has been issued, although claims may also be reported and paid many years later.
Title losses due to independent agency defalcations typically occur when the independent agency misappropriates funds from escrow accounts under its control. Such losses are usually discovered when the independent agency fails to pay off an outstanding mortgage loan at closing (or immediately thereafter) from the proceeds of the new loan. Once the previous lender determines that its loan has not been paid off timely, it will file a claim against the title insurer.
Claims can be complex, vary greatly in dollar amounts and are affected by economic and market conditions and the legal environment existing at the time claims are processed. In our commercial title business, we may issue polices with face amounts well in excess of $100 million, and from time to time claims are submitted with respect to large policies. We believe we are appropriately reserved with respect to all claims (large and small) that we currently face. Occasionally we experience large losses from title policies that have been issued or from our escrow operations, or overall worsening loss payment experience, which require us to increase our title loss reserves. These events are unpredictable and adversely affect our earnings. Claims can result in litigation in which we may represent our insured and/or ourselves. We consider this type of litigation to be an ordinary course aspect of the conduct of our business.
 Reinsurance and Coinsurance
 We limit our maximum loss exposure by reinsuring risks with other insurers under excess of loss and case-by-case (“facultative”) reinsurance agreements. Reinsurance agreements provide generally that the reinsurer is liable for loss and loss adjustment expense payments exceeding the amount retained by the ceding company. However, the ceding company remains primarily liable in the event the reinsurer does not meet its contractual obligations. Facultative reinsurance agreements are entered into with other title insurers when the transaction to be insured will exceed state statutory or self-imposed limits. Excess of loss reinsurance protects us from a loss from a single occurrence. For 2012, our excess of loss coverage is split into two tiers. The first tier provides coverage for residential and commercial transactions up to $100 million per loss occurrence, subject to a $10 million retention per loss. Prior to any recovery, there is also an additional $5 million aggregate retention. The second tier provides additional coverage for commercial transactions in excess of $100 million of loss per occurrence up to $400 million per occurrence, with the Company participating at 20%.
 In addition to reinsurance, we carry errors and omissions insurance and fidelity bond coverage, each of which can provide protection to us in the event of certain types of losses that can occur in our businesses.
Our policy is to be selective in choosing our reinsurers, seeking only those companies that we consider to be financially stable and adequately capitalized. In an effort to minimize exposure to the insolvency of a reinsurer, we review the financial condition of our reinsurers.
We also use coinsurance in our commercial title business to provide coverage in amounts greater than we would be willing or able to provide individually. In coinsurance transactions, each individual underwriting company issues a separate policy and assumes a portion of the overall total risk. As a coinsurer we are only liable for the portion of the risk we assume.
We also earn a small amount of additional income, which is reflected in our direct premiums, by assuming reinsurance for certain risks of other title insurers.



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Patents, Trademarks and Other Intellectual Property
 We rely on a combination of contractual restrictions, internal security practices, and copyright and trade secret law to establish and protect our software, technology, and expertise. Further, we have developed a number of brands that have accumulated substantial goodwill in the marketplace, and we rely on trademark law to protect our rights in that area. We intend to continue our policy of taking all measures we deem necessary to protect our copyright, trade secret, and trademark rights. These legal protections and arrangements afford only limited protection of our proprietary rights, and there is no assurance that our competitors will not independently develop or license products, services, or capabilities that are substantially equivalent or superior to ours.
Technology and Research and Development
 As a national provider of real estate transaction products and services, we participate in a dynamic industry that is subject to significant regulatory requirements, frequent new product and service introductions, and evolving industry standards. We believe that our future success will depend in part on our ability to anticipate industry changes and offer products and services that meet evolving industry standards. In connection with our service offerings, we are continuing to deploy new information system technologies to our direct and agency operations. We expect to improve the process of ordering title and escrow services and improve the delivery of our products to our customers. In order to meet new regulatory requirements, we also continue to expand our data collection and reporting abilities.
Competition
 Competition in the title insurance industry is based primarily on expertise, service and price. In addition, the financial strength of the insurer has become an increasingly important factor in decisions relating to the purchase of title insurance, particularly in multi-state transactions and in situations involving real estate-related investment vehicles such as real estate investment trusts and real estate mortgage investment conduits. The number and size of competing companies varies in the different geographic areas in which we conduct our business. In our principal markets, competitors include other major title underwriters such as First American Financial Corporation, Old Republic International Corporation and Stewart Information Services Corporation, as well as numerous smaller title insurance companies, underwritten title companies and independent agency operations at the regional and local level. Independent agency operations account for 56.1% of our total title insurance premiums. Several of the smaller competitors have closed their operations in the past few years as a result of the significant decrease in activity in the residential real estate market. The removal of regulatory barriers might result in new competitors entering the title insurance business, and those new competitors may include diversified financial services companies that have greater financial resources than we do and possess other competitive advantages. Competition among the major title insurance companies, expansion by smaller regional companies and any new entrants with alternative products could affect our business operations and financial condition.
 Regulation
 Our insurance subsidiaries, including title insurers, underwritten title companies and insurance agencies, are subject to extensive regulation under applicable state laws. Each of the insurers is subject to a holding company act in its state of domicile, which regulates, among other matters, the ability to pay dividends and enter into transactions with affiliates. The laws of most states in which we transact business establish supervisory agencies with broad administrative powers relating to issuing and revoking licenses to transact business, regulating trade practices, licensing agents, approving policy forms, accounting practices, financial practices, establishing reserve and capital and surplus as regards policyholders (“capital and surplus”) requirements, defining suitable investments for reserves and capital and surplus and approving rate schedules. The process of state regulation of changes in rates ranges from states which set rates, to states where individual companies or associations of companies prepare rate filings which are submitted for approval, to a few states in which rate changes do not need to be filed for approval.
Since we are governed by both state and federal governments and the applicable insurance laws and regulations are constantly subject to change, it is not possible to predict the potential effects on our insurance operations of any laws or regulations that may become more restrictive in the future or if new restrictive laws will be enacted.
 Pursuant to statutory accounting requirements of the various states in which our title insurers are domiciled, these insurers must defer a portion of premiums as an unearned premium reserve for the protection of policyholders (in addition to their reserves for known claims) and must maintain qualified assets in an amount equal to the statutory requirements. The level of unearned premium reserve required to be maintained at any time is determined by a statutory formula based upon either the age, number of policies, and dollar amount of policy liabilities underwritten, or the age and dollar amount of statutory premiums written. As of December 31, 2011, the combined statutory unearned premium reserve required and reported for our title insurers was $1,858.3 million. In addition to statutory unearned premium reserves and reserves for known claims, each of our insurers maintains surplus funds for policyholder protection and business operations.
Each of our insurance subsidiaries is regulated by the insurance regulatory authority in its respective state of domicile, as well

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as that of each state in which it is licensed. The insurance commissioners of their respective states of domicile are the primary regulators of our insurance subsidiaries. Each of the insurers is subject to periodic regulatory financial examination by regulatory authorities, and certain of these examinations are currently ongoing.
Under the statutes governing insurance holding companies in most states, insurers may not enter into certain transactions, including sales, reinsurance agreements and service or management contracts, with their affiliates unless the regulatory authority of the insurer’s state of domicile has received notice at least 30 days prior to the intended effective date of such transaction and has not objected to, or has approved, the transaction within the 30-day period.
 As a holding company with no significant business operations of our own, we depend on dividends or other distributions from our subsidiaries as the principal source of cash to meet our obligations, including the payment of interest on and repayment of principal of any debt obligations, and to pay any dividends to our stockholders. The payment of dividends or other distributions to us by our insurers is regulated by the insurance laws and regulations of their respective states of domicile. In general, an insurance company subsidiary may not pay an “extraordinary” dividend or distribution unless the applicable insurance regulator has received notice of the intended payment at least 30 days prior to payment and has not objected to or has approved the payment within the 30-day period. In general, an “extraordinary” dividend or distribution is statutorily defined as a dividend or distribution that, together with other dividends and distributions made within the preceding 12 months, exceeds the greater of:
10% of the insurer’s statutory surplus as of the immediately prior year end; or
the statutory net income of the insurer during the prior calendar year.
 The laws and regulations of some jurisdictions also prohibit an insurer from declaring or paying a dividend except out of its earned surplus or require the insurer to obtain prior regulatory approval. During 2012, our directly owned title insurers can pay dividends or make distributions to us of approximately $107.6 million without prior regulatory approval; however, insurance regulators have the authority to prohibit the payment of ordinary dividends or other payments by our title insurers to us (such as a payment under a tax sharing agreement or for employee or other services) if they determine that such payment could be adverse to our policyholders.
The combined statutory capital and surplus of our title insurers was approximately $894.4 million and $900.7 million as of December 31, 2011 and 2010, respectively. The combined statutory (loss) earnings of our title insurers were $140.1 million, $(46.6) million, and $237.2 million for the years ended December 31, 2011, 2010, and 2009, respectively.
As a condition to continued authority to underwrite policies in the states in which our insurers conduct their business, they are required to pay certain fees and file information regarding their officers, directors and financial condition.
 Pursuant to statutory requirements of the various states in which our insurers are domiciled, they must maintain certain levels of minimum capital and surplus. Each of our insurers has complied with the minimum statutory requirements as of December 31, 2011.
 Our underwritten title companies are also subject to certain regulation by insurance regulatory or banking authorities, primarily relating to minimum net worth. Minimum net worth requirements for each underwritten title company are as follows: $7.5 million for Fidelity National Title Company, $2.5 million for Fidelity National Title Company of California, $3.0 million for Chicago Title Company, and $0.4 million for Ticor Title Company of California, Commonwealth Land Title Company, and Lawyers Title Company. These companies were in compliance with their respective minimum net worth requirements at December 31, 2011.
 We receive inquiries and requests for information from state insurance departments, attorneys general and other regulatory agencies from time to time about various matters relating to our business. Sometimes these take the form of civil investigative subpoenas. We attempt to cooperate with all such inquiries. From time to time, we are assessed fines for violations of regulations or other matters or enter into settlements with such authorities which require us to pay money or take other actions. For a discussion of certain pending matters, see Item 3, Legal Proceedings.
Before a person can acquire control of a U.S. insurance company, prior written approval must be obtained from the insurance commissioner of the state in which the insurer is domiciled. Prior to granting approval of an application to acquire control of a domestic insurer, the state insurance commissioner will consider such factors as the financial strength of the applicant, the integrity and management of the applicant’s Board of Directors and executive officers, the acquirer’s plans for the insurer’s Board of Directors and executive officers, the acquirer’s plans for the future operations of the domestic insurer and any anti-competitive results that may arise from the consummation of the acquisition of control. Generally, state statutes provide that control over a domestic insurer is presumed to exist if any person, directly or indirectly, owns, controls, holds with the power to vote, or holds proxies representing 10% or more of the voting securities of the domestic insurer. Because a person acquiring 10% or more of our

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common shares would indirectly control the same percentage of the stock of our insurers, the insurance change of control laws would likely apply to such a transaction.
 The National Association of Insurance Commissioners ("NAIC") has adopted an instruction requiring an annual certification of reserve adequacy by a qualified actuary. Because all of the states in which our title insurers are domiciled require adherence to NAIC filing procedures, each such insurer, unless it qualifies for an exemption, must file an actuarial opinion with respect to the adequacy of its reserves.
Ratings
Our title insurance underwriters are regularly assigned ratings by independent agencies designed to indicate their financial condition and/or claims paying ability. The rating agencies determine ratings by quantitatively and qualitatively analyzing financial data and other information. Our title subsidiaries include Alamo Title, Chicago Title, Commonwealth Land Title, and Fidelity National Title. Standard & Poor’s Ratings Group (“S&P”), Moody’s Investors Service (“Moody’s”), and A. M. Best Company ("A.M. Best") provide ratings for the entire FNF family of companies as a whole as follows:
 
 
S&P
 
Moody’s
 
A.M. Best
FNF family of companies
A-
 
A3
 
A-

The relative position of each of our ratings among the ratings scale assigned by each rating agency is as follows:

An S&P "A-" rating is the eighth highest rating of 25 ratings for S&P. S&P states that an “A-” rating means that, in its opinion, the insurer is highly likely to have the ability to meet its financial obligations.

A Moody's "A3" rating is the twelfth highest rating of 33 ratings for Moody's. Moody's states that insurance companies rated “A3” offer good financial security.

An A.M. Best "A-" rating is the fourth highest rating of 15 ratings for A.M. Best. A.M. Best states that its “A- (Excellent)” rating is assigned to those companies that have, in its opinion, an excellent ability to meet their ongoing obligations to policyholders.
 Demotech provides financial strength/stability ratings for each of our principal title insurance underwriters individually, as follows: 
Alamo Title Insurance
A’
Chicago Title Insurance Company
A”
Commonwealth Land Title Insurance Company
A
Fidelity National Title Insurance Company
A’
 Demotech states that its ratings of “A´´ (A double prime)” and “A´ (A prime)” reflect its opinion that, regardless of the severity of a general economic downturn or deterioration in the insurance cycle, the insurers assigned either of those ratings possess “Unsurpassed” financial stability related to maintaining positive surplus as regards policyholders. The "A" rating reflects Demotech's opinion that, regardless of the severity of a general economic downturn or deterioration in the insurance cycle, the insurers assigned such rating possess “Exceptional” financial stability related to maintaining positive surplus as regards policyholders. The “A´´ (A double prime)”, “A´ (A prime)” and "A" ratings are the three highest ratings of Demotech's five ratings.
The ratings of S&P, Moody’s, A.M. Best, and Demotech described above are not designed to be, and do not serve as, measures of protection or valuation offered to investors. These financial strength ratings should not be relied on with respect to making an investment in our securities. See “Item 1A. Risk Factors — If the rating agencies downgrade our Company, our results of operations and competitive position in the title insurance industry may suffer” for further information.
Investment Policies and Investment Portfolio
 Our investment policy is designed to maximize total return through investment income and capital appreciation consistent with moderate risk of principal, while providing adequate liquidity. Our insurance subsidiaries, including title insurers, underwritten title companies and insurance agencies, are subject to extensive regulation under applicable state laws. The various states in which we operate regulate the types of assets that qualify for purposes of capital, surplus, and statutory unearned premium reserves. Our investment policy specifically limits duration and non-investment grade allocations in the core fixed-income portfolio. Maintaining shorter durations on the investment portfolio allows for the mitigation of interest rate risk. Equity securities are utilized to take advantage of perceived value or for strategic purposes. Due to the magnitude of the investment portfolio in relation to our claims

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loss reserves, durations of investments are not specifically matched to the cash outflows required to pay claims.
As of December 31, 2011 and 2010, the carrying amount, which approximates the fair value, of total investments, excluding investments in unconsolidated affiliates, was $3.5 billion and $3.8 billion, respectively.
 We purchase investment grade fixed maturity securities, selected non-investment grade fixed maturity securities, preferred stock and equity securities. The securities in our portfolio are subject to economic conditions and normal market risks and uncertainties. Our fixed maturities included auction rate securities at December 31, 2010 with a par value of $14.1 million and fair value of $9.5 million, which were included in the assets of the LFG Underwriters that we acquired on December 22, 2008. Fair values for the auction rate securities were provided by a third-party pricing service. These auction rate securities were sold during 2011.
 The following table presents certain information regarding the investment ratings of our fixed maturity portfolio at December 31, 2011 and 2010:
 
December 31,
 
2011
 
2010
 
Amortized
 
% of
 
Fair
 
% of
 
Amortized
 
% of
 
Fair
 
% of
Rating(1)
Cost
 
Total
 
Value
 
Total
 
Cost
 
Total
 
Value
 
Total
 
(Dollars in millions)
Aaa/AAA
$
534.7

 
17.3
%
 
$
565.1

 
17.7
%
 
$
724.5

 
21.5
%
 
$
748.1

 
21.4
%
Aa/AA
1,084.8

 
35.1

 
1,139.5

 
35.6

 
1,220.5

 
36.1

 
1,254.0

 
35.9

A
728.2

 
23.5

 
759.0

 
23.7

 
758.3

 
22.5

 
793.2

 
22.7

Baa/BBB
505.7

 
16.3

 
516.2

 
16.1

 
525.4

 
15.6

 
541.6

 
15.5

Ba/BB/B
159.6

 
5.2

 
153.4

 
4.8

 
66.0

 
2.0

 
67.2

 
1.9

Lower
68.4

 
2.2

 
55.1

 
1.7

 
15.8

 
0.5

 
14.8

 
0.4

Other (2)
11.6

 
0.4

 
11.9

 
0.4

 
66.7

 
1.8

 
75.4

 
2.2

 
$
3,093.0

 
100.0
%
 
$
3,200.2

 
100.0
%
 
$
3,377.2

 
100.0
%
 
$
3,494.3

 
100.0
%
______________________________________
(1)
Ratings as assigned by Moody’s Investors Service or Standard & Poor’s Ratings Group if a Moody's rating is unavailable.
(2)
This category is composed of unrated securities.
The following table presents certain information regarding contractual maturities of our fixed maturity securities:
 
December 31, 2011
 
Amortized
 
% of
 
Fair
 
% of
Maturity
Cost
 
Total
 
Value
 
Total
 
(Dollars in millions)
One year or less
$
319.5

 
10.3
%
 
$
324.4

 
10.1
%
After one year through five years
1,422.3

 
46.0

 
1,468.3

 
45.9

After five years through ten years
1,101.4

 
35.6

 
1,146.4

 
35.8

After ten years
57.9

 
1.9

 
59.5

 
1.9

Mortgage-backed/asset-backed securities
191.9

 
6.2

 
201.6

 
6.3

 
$
3,093.0

 
100.0
%
 
$
3,200.2

 
100.0
%
At December 31, 2011 substantially all of our mortgage-backed and asset-backed securities are rated AA or better. The mortgage-backed and asset-backed securities are made up of $157.6 million of agency mortgage-backed securities, $1.6 million of non-agency mortgage backed securities, $0.1 million of collateralized mortgage obligations, $25.9 million of commercial mortgage-backed securities, and $16.4 million in asset-backed securities.
 Expected maturities may differ from contractual maturities because certain borrowers have the right to call or prepay obligations with or without call or prepayment penalties. Because of the potential for prepayment on mortgage-backed and asset-backed securities, they are not categorized by contractual maturity. Fixed maturity securities with an amortized cost of $1,437.7 million and a fair value of $1,477.8 million were callable or had make-whole call provisions at December 31, 2011.
Our equity securities at December 31, 2011 and 2010 consisted of investments at a cost basis of $83.2 million and $51.1

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million, respectively, and fair value of $105.7 million and $75.2 million, respectively. The balance of equity securities at December 31, 2011 and 2010 contains an investment in Fidelity National Information Services ("FIS") stock, a related party. During the third quarter of 2010, we sold 1,611,574 shares of FIS stock as part of a tender offer by FIS at $29.00 per share for a realized gain of $21.7 million. The fair value of our investment in FIS stock was $42.6 million and $43.9 million as of December 31, 2011 and 2010, respectively. There were no significant investments in banks, trust or insurance companies at December 31, 2011 or 2010.
At December 31, 2011 and 2010, we also held $546.5 million and $527.7 million, respectively, in investments that are accounted for using the equity method of accounting, principally our ownership interests in Ceridian and Remy.
 As of December 31, 2011 and 2010, other long-term investments included structured notes at a fair value of $40.8 million and $90.1 million, respectively, which were purchased in the third quarter of 2009. Also included in other long-term investments were investments accounted for using the cost method of accounting of $36.7 million and $42.6 million, as of December 31, 2011 and 2010, respectively.
 Short-term investments, which consist primarily of securities purchased under agreements to resell, commercial paper and money market instruments which have an original maturity of one year or less, are carried at amortized cost, which approximates fair value. As of December 31, 2011 and 2010, short-term investments amounted to $50.4 million and $128.6 million, respectively.
Our investment results for the years ended December 31, 2011, 2010 and 2009 were as follows:
 
 
December 31,
 
 
2011
 
2010
 
2009
 
 
(Dollars in millions)
Net investment income (1)
 
$
164.8

 
$
156.6

 
$
164.7

Average invested assets
 
$
3,792.2

 
$
3,928.7

 
$
3,972.1

Effective return on average invested assets
 
4.3
%
 
4.0
%
 
4.1
%
______________________________________
(1)
Net investment income as reported in our Consolidated Statements of Earnings has been adjusted in the presentation above to provide the tax equivalent yield on tax exempt investments.
Loss Reserves
 For information about our loss reserves, see Item 7. Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations — Critical Accounting Estimates.
Employees
As of January 31, 2012, we had approximately 17,396 full-time equivalent employees. From 2006 to 2008, we actively sought to reduce our head count as activity in our Fidelity National Title Group segment declined. As the economic environment and order counts began to stabilize in 2009, we curtailed efforts to reduce staffing levels in our legacy title operations, but aggressively reduced staff in the acquired LFG Underwriters to meet our intended profitability standards. We have monitored our staffing levels based on current economic activity in 2010 and 2011 and will continue to do so in the future. We believe that our relations with employees are generally good. None of our employees are subject to collective bargaining agreements.
 Statement Regarding Forward-Looking Information
 The statements contained in this Form 10-K or in our other documents or in oral presentations or other statements made by our management that are not purely historical are forward-looking statements within the meaning of Section 27A of the Securities Act of 1933 and Section 21E of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, including statements regarding our expectations, hopes, intentions, or strategies regarding the future. These statements relate to, among other things, future financial and operating results of the Company. In many cases, you can identify forward-looking statements by terminology such as “may,” “will,” “should,” “expect,” “plan,” “anticipate,” “believe,” “estimate,” “predict,” “potential,” or “continue,” or the negative of these terms and other comparable terminology. Actual results could differ materially from those anticipated in these statements as a result of a number of factors, including, but not limited to:
changes in general economic, business, and political conditions, including changes in the financial markets;
the severity of our title insurance claims;
downgrade of our credit rating by rating agencies;

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continued weakness or adverse changes in the level of real estate activity, which may be caused by, among other things, high or increasing interest rates, a limited supply of mortgage funding, increased mortgage defaults, or a weak U.S. economy;
compliance with extensive government regulation of our operating subsidiaries and adverse changes in applicable laws or regulations or in their application by regulators;
regulatory investigations of the title insurance industry;
loss of key personnel that could negatively affect our financial results and impair our operating abilities;
our business concentration in the State of California, the source of approximately 15.8% of our title insurance premiums;
our potential inability to find suitable acquisition candidates, as well as the risks associated with acquisitions in lines of business that will not necessarily be limited to our traditional areas of focus, or difficulties integrating acquisitions;
our dependence on distributions from our title insurance underwriters as our main source of cash flow;
competition from other title insurance companies; and
other risks detailed in "Risk Factors" below and elsewhere in this document and in our other filings with the SEC.
 We are not under any obligation (and expressly disclaim any such obligation) to update or alter our forward-looking statements, whether as a result of new information, future events or otherwise. You should carefully consider the possibility that actual results may differ materially from our forward-looking statements.
 Additional Information
 Our website address is www.fnf.com. We make available free of charge on or through our website our Annual Report on Form 10-K, Quarterly Reports on Form 10-Q, Current Reports on Form 8-K and all amendments to those reports filed or furnished pursuant to Section 13(a) or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, as soon as reasonably practicable after such material is electronically filed with or furnished to the Securities and Exchange Commission. However, the information found on our website is not part of this or any other report.

Item 1A.      Risk Factors
In addition to the normal risks of business, we are subject to significant risks and uncertainties, including those listed below and others described elsewhere in this Annual Report on Form 10-K. Any of the risks described herein could result in a significant or material adverse effect on our results of operations or financial condition.
General
If adverse changes in the levels of real estate activity occur, our revenues may decline.
Title insurance revenue is closely related to the level of real estate activity which includes sales, mortgage financing and mortgage refinancing. The levels of real estate activity are primarily affected by the average price of real estate sales, the availability of funds to finance purchases and mortgage interest rates. Both the volume and the average price of residential real estate transactions have declined in many parts of the country over the past five years.
We have found that residential real estate activity generally decreases in the following situations:
 when mortgage interest rates are high or increasing;
when the mortgage funding supply is limited; and
when the United States economy is weak, including high unemployment levels.
Declines in the level of real estate activity or the average price of real estate sales are likely to adversely affect our title insurance revenues. In 2008 and continuing through 2011, the continued mortgage delinquency and default rates caused negative operating results at a number of banks and financial institutions and, as a result, continued to suppress the level of lending activity. The Mortgage Bankers Association's ("MBA") Mortgage Finance Forecast currently estimates an approximately $1.0 trillion mortgage origination market for 2012, which would be a decrease of 23.1% from 2011. The MBA forecasts that the 23.1% decrease will result almost entirely from decreased refinance activity. Our revenues in future periods will continue to be subject to these and other factors which are beyond our control and, as a result, are likely to fluctuate.

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We have recorded goodwill as a result of prior acquisitions, and a continued economic downturn could cause these balances to become impaired, requiring write-downs that would reduce our operating income.
Goodwill aggregated approximately $1,452.2 million, or 18.5% of our total assets, as of December 31, 2011. Current accounting rules require that goodwill be assessed for impairment at least annually or whenever changes in circumstances indicate that the carrying amount may not be recoverable from estimated future cash flows. Factors that may be considered a change in circumstance indicating the carrying value of our intangible assets, including goodwill, may not be recoverable include, but are not limited to, significant underperformance relative to historical or projected future operating results, a significant decline in our stock price and market capitalization, and negative industry or economic trends. No goodwill impairment charge was recorded in 2011. However, if there is a continued economic downturn, the carrying amount of our goodwill may no longer be recoverable, and we may be required to record an impairment charge, which would have a negative impact on our results of operations and financial condition. We will continue to monitor our market capitalization and the impact of a continued economic downturn on our business to determine if there is an impairment of goodwill in future periods.
If economic and credit market conditions deteriorate, it could have a material adverse impact on our investment portfolio.
Our investment portfolio is exposed to economic and financial market risks, including changes in interest rates, credit markets and prices of marketable equity and fixed-income securities. Our investment policy is designed to maximize total return through investment income and capital appreciation consistent with moderate risk of principal, while providing adequate liquidity and complying with internal and regulatory guidelines. To achieve this objective, our marketable debt investments are primarily investment grade, liquid, fixed-income securities and money market instruments denominated in U.S. dollars. We make investments in certain equity securities and preferred stock in order to take advantage of perceived value and for strategic purposes. In the past, economic and credit market conditions have adversely affected the ability of some issuers of investment securities to repay their obligations and have affected the values of investment securities. If the carrying value of our investments exceeds the fair value, and the decline in fair value is deemed to be other-than-temporary, we will be required to write down the value of our investments, which could have a material negative impact on our results of operations and financial condition. We own a minority interest in Ceridian Corporation ("Ceridian"), a leading provider of global human capital management and payment solutions. We also own a minority interest in Remy International, Inc. (“Remy”), a designer, manufacturer, remanufacturer, marketer and distributor of aftermarket and original equipment electrical components for automobiles, light trucks, heavy-duty trucks and other vehicles. If the fair value of one of these companies were to decline below book value, we would be required to write down the value of our investment, which could have a material negative impact on our results of operations and financial condition. If one of these companies were to experience significant negative volatility in their results of operations it would have a material adverse effect on our own results of operations due to our inclusion of our portion of their earnings in our results of operations.
If financial institutions at which we hold escrow funds fail, it could have a material adverse impact on our company.
We hold customers' assets in escrow at various financial institutions, pending completion of real estate transactions. These assets are maintained in segregated bank accounts and have not been included in the accompanying Consolidated Balance Sheets. We have a contingent liability relating to proper disposition of these balances for our customers, which amounted to $5.4 billion at December 31, 2011. Failure of one or more of these financial institutions may lead us to become liable for the funds owed to third parties and there is no guarantee that we would recover the funds deposited, whether through Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation coverage or otherwise.
 If we experience changes in the rate or severity of title insurance claims, it may be necessary for us to record additional charges to our claim loss reserve. This may result in lower net earnings and the potential for earnings volatility.
By their nature, claims are often complex, vary greatly in dollar amounts and are affected by economic and market conditions and the legal environment existing at the time of settlement of the claims. Estimating future title loss payments is difficult because of the complex nature of title claims, the long periods of time over which claims are paid, significantly varying dollar amounts of individual claims and other factors. From time to time, we experience large losses or an overall worsening of our loss payment experience in regard to the frequency or severity of claims that require us to record additional charges to our claims loss reserve. There are currently pending several large claims which we believe can be defended successfully without material loss payments. However, if unanticipated material payments are required to settle these claims, it could result in or contribute to additional charges to our claim loss reserves. These loss events are unpredictable and adversely affect our earnings.
At each quarter end, our recorded reserve for claim losses is initially the result of taking the prior recorded reserve for claim losses, adding the current provision to that balance and subtracting actual paid claims from that balance, resulting in an amount that management then compares to the actuary's central estimate provided in the actuarial calculation. Due to the uncertainty and judgment used by both management and our actuary, our ultimate liability may be greater or less than our current reserves and/or our actuary’s calculation. If the recorded amount is within a reasonable range of the actuary’s central estimate, but not at the central estimate, management assesses other factors in order to determine our best estimate. These factors, which are more qualitative

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than quantitative, can change from period to period and include items such as current trends in the real estate industry (which management can assess, but for which there is a time lag in the development of the data used by our actuary), any adjustments from the actuarial estimates needed for the effects of unusually large or small claims, improvements in our claims management processes, and other cost saving measures. Depending upon our assessment of these factors, we may or may not adjust the recorded reserve. If the recorded amount is not within a reasonable range of the actuary’s central estimate, we would record a charge or credit and reassess the provision rate on a go forward basis.
 Our average provision for claim losses was 6.8% of title premiums in 2011. We will reassess the provision to be recorded in future periods consistent with this methodology and can make no assurance that we will not need to record additional charges in the future to increase reserves in respect of prior periods.
Our insurance subsidiaries must comply with extensive regulations. These regulations may increase our costs or impede or impose burdensome conditions on actions that we might seek to take to increase the revenues of those subsidiaries.
Our insurance businesses are subject to extensive regulation by state insurance authorities in each state in which they operate. These agencies have broad administrative and supervisory power relating to the following, among other matters:
licensing requirements;
trade and marketing practices;
accounting and financing practices;
capital and surplus requirements;
the amount of dividends and other payments made by insurance subsidiaries;
investment practices;
rate schedules;
deposits of securities for the benefit of policyholders;
establishing reserves; and
regulation of reinsurance.
Most states also regulate insurance holding companies like us with respect to acquisitions, changes of control and the terms of transactions with our affiliates. State regulations may impede or impose burdensome conditions on our ability to increase or maintain rate levels or on other actions that we may want to take to enhance our operating results. In addition, we may incur significant costs in the course of complying with regulatory requirements. Further, various state legislatures have in the past considered offering a public alternative to the title industry in their states, as a means to increase state government revenues. Although we think this situation is unlikely, if one or more such takeovers were to occur they could adversely affect our business. We cannot be assured that future legislative or regulatory changes will not adversely affect our business operations. See “Item 1. Business — Regulation.”
 State regulation of the rates we charge for title insurance could adversely affect our results of operations.
Our title insurance subsidiaries are subject to extensive rate regulation by the applicable state agencies in the jurisdictions in which they operate. Title insurance rates are regulated differently in the various states, with some states requiring the subsidiaries to file and receive approval of rates before such rates become effective and some states promulgating the rates that can be charged. In almost all states in which our title subsidiaries operate, our rates must not be excessive, inadequate or unfairly discriminatory. See also the risk factor below relating to regulatory conditions in California.
Regulatory investigations of the insurance industry may lead to fines, settlements, new regulation or legal uncertainty, which could negatively affect our results of operations.
We receive inquiries and requests for information from state insurance departments, attorneys general and other regulatory agencies from time to time about various matters relating to our business. Sometimes these take the form of civil investigative subpoenas. We attempt to cooperate with all such inquiries. From time to time, we are assessed fines for violations of regulations or other matters or enter into settlements with such authorities which require us to pay money or take other actions. These fines may be significant and actions we are required to take may adversely affect our business.

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Because we are dependent upon California for approximately 15.8 percent of our title insurance premiums, our business may be adversely affected by regulatory conditions in California.
California is the largest source of revenue for the title insurance industry and, in 2011, California-based premiums accounted for 35.4% of premiums earned by our direct operations and 1.3% of our agency premium revenues. In the aggregate, California accounted for approximately 15.8% of our total title insurance premiums for 2011. A significant part of our revenues and profitability are therefore subject to our operations in California and to the prevailing regulatory conditions in California. Adverse regulatory developments in California, which could include reductions in the maximum rates permitted to be charged, inadequate rate increases or more fundamental changes in the design or implementation of the California title insurance regulatory framework, could have a material adverse effect on our results of operations and financial condition.
If the rating agencies downgrade our Company, our results of operations and competitive position in the title insurance industry may suffer.
Ratings have always been an important factor in establishing the competitive position of insurance companies. Our title insurance subsidiaries are rated by S&P, Moody’s, A.M. Best, and Demotech. Ratings reflect the opinion of a rating agency with regard to an insurance company’s or insurance holding company’s financial strength, operating performance and ability to meet its obligations to policyholders and are not evaluations directed to investors. Our ratings are subject to continued periodic review by rating agencies and the continued retention of those ratings cannot be assured. If our ratings are reduced from their current levels by those entities, our results of operations could be adversely affected.
Our management has articulated a willingness to seek growth through acquisitions in lines of business that will not necessarily be limited to our traditional areas of focus or geographic areas. This expansion of our business subjects us to associated risks, such as the diversion of management’s attention and lack of experience in operating such businesses, and may affect our credit and ability to repay our debt.
Our management has stated that we may make acquisitions in lines of business that are not directly tied to or synergistic with our core operating segments. Accordingly, we have in the past acquired, and may in the future acquire, businesses in industries or geographic areas with which management is less familiar than we are with our core businesses. These activities involve risks that could adversely affect our operating results, such as diversion of management’s attention and lack of substantial experience in operating such businesses. There can be no guarantee that we will not enter into transactions or make acquisitions that will cause us to incur additional debt, increase our exposure to market and other risks and cause our credit or financial strength ratings to decline.
 We are a holding company and depend on distributions from our subsidiaries for cash.
We are a holding company whose primary assets are the securities of our operating subsidiaries. Our ability to pay interest on our outstanding debt and our other obligations and to pay dividends is dependent on the ability of our subsidiaries to pay dividends or make other distributions or payments to us. If our operating subsidiaries are not able to pay dividends to us, we may not be able to meet our obligations or pay dividends on our common stock.
 Our title insurance subsidiaries must comply with state laws which require them to maintain minimum amounts of working capital, surplus and reserves, and place restrictions on the amount of dividends that they can distribute to us. Compliance with these laws will limit the amounts our regulated subsidiaries can dividend to us. During 2012, our title insurers may pay dividends or make distributions to us without prior regulatory approval of approximately $107.6 million.
 The maximum dividend permitted by law is not necessarily indicative of an insurer’s actual ability to pay dividends, which may be constrained by business and regulatory considerations, such as the impact of dividends on surplus, which could affect an insurer’s ratings or competitive position, the amount of premiums that can be written and the ability to pay future dividends. Further, depending on business and regulatory conditions, we may in the future need to retain cash in our underwriters or even contribute cash to one or more of them in order to maintain their ratings or their statutory capital position. Such a requirement could be the result of investment losses, reserve charges, adverse operating conditions in the current economic environment or changes in interpretation of statutory accounting requirements by regulators.
We could have conflicts with Fidelity National Information Services ("FIS"), and our chairman of our Board of Directors and other officers and directors could have conflicts of interest due to their relationships with FIS.
 FIS and FNF were under common ownership by another publicly traded company, also called Fidelity National Financial, Inc. (“Old FNF”) until October 2006, when Old FNF distributed all of its FNF shares to the stockholders of Old FNF (the "2006 Distribution"). In November 2006, Old FNF then merged into FIS.
Conflicts may arise between us and FIS as a result of our ongoing agreements and the nature of our respective businesses.

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We are party to a number of agreements with FIS, and we may enter into further agreements with FIS. Certain of our executive officers and directors could be subject to conflicts of interest with respect to such agreements and other matters due to their relationships with FIS.
Some of our executive officers and directors own substantial amounts of FIS stock and stock options. Such ownership could create or appear to create potential conflicts of interest when our directors and officers are faced with decisions that involve FIS or any of its subsidiaries.
William P. Foley, II, is the executive chairman of our Board of Directors and the Chairman of the Board of FIS. As a result of these roles, he has obligations to us and FIS and may have conflicts of interest with respect to matters potentially or actually involving or affecting our and FIS’s respective businesses. In addition, Mr. Foley may also have conflicts of time with respect to his multiple responsibilities. If his duties to either of these companies require more time than Mr. Foley is able to allot, then his oversight of that company’s activities could be diminished. Finally, FIS and FNF have several overlapping directors and officers.
Matters that could give rise to conflicts between us and FIS include, among other things:
our ongoing and future relationships with FIS, including related party agreements and other arrangements with respect to the information technology support services, administrative corporate support and cost sharing services, indemnification, and other matters; and
the quality and pricing of services that we have agreed to provide to FIS or that it has agreed to provide to us.
We seek to manage these potential conflicts through dispute resolution and other provisions of our agreements with FIS and through oversight by independent members of our Board of Directors. However, there can be no assurance that such measures will be effective or that we will be able to resolve all potential conflicts with FIS, or that the resolution of any such conflicts will be no less favorable to us than if we were dealing with a third party.
The loss of key personnel could negatively affect our financial results and impair our operating abilities.
 Our success substantially depends on our ability to attract and retain key members of our senior management team and officers. If we lose one or more of these key employees, our operating results and in turn the value of our common stock could be materially adversely affected. Although we have employment agreements with many of our officers, there can be no assurance that the entire term of the employment agreement will be served or that the employment agreement will be renewed upon expiration.

Item 1B.
Unresolved Staff Comments
None.

Item 2.  
Properties
We have our corporate headquarters on our campus in Jacksonville, Florida. The majority of our branch offices are leased from third parties (see note K to Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements). Our subsidiaries conduct their business operations primarily in leased office space in 43 states, Washington, DC, Puerto Rico, Canada, India and Mexico.

Item 3.
Legal Proceedings  

In the ordinary course of business, we are involved in various pending and threatened litigation matters related to our operations, some of which include claims for punitive or exemplary damages. This customary litigation includes but is not limited to a wide variety of cases arising out of or related to title and escrow claims, for which we make provisions through our loss reserves. Additionally, like other insurance companies, our ordinary course litigation includes a number of class action and purported class action lawsuits, which make allegations related to aspects of our insurance operations. We believe that no actions, other than the matter discussed below, depart from customary litigation incidental to our business.
        
We review lawsuits and other legal and regulatory matters (collectively “legal proceedings”) on an ongoing basis when making accrual and disclosure decisions. When assessing reasonably possible and probable outcomes, management bases its decision on its assessment of the ultimate outcome assuming all appeals have been exhausted. For legal proceedings where it has been determined that a loss is both probable and reasonably estimable, a liability based on known facts and which represents our best estimate has been recorded. None of the amounts we have currently recorded is considered to be individually or in the aggregate material to our financial condition. Actual losses may materially differ from the amounts recorded and the ultimate outcome of our pending cases is generally not yet determinable. While some of these matters could be material to our operating results for any particular period if an unfavorable outcome results, at present we do not believe that the ultimate resolution of currently

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pending legal proceedings, either individually or in the aggregate, will have a material adverse effect on our financial condition, results of operations or cash flows.

On November 24, 2010, plaintiffs filed a purported class action in the United States District Court, Northern District of California, Oakland Division titled Vivian Hays, et al. vs. Commonwealth Land Title Insurance Company and Lawyers Title Insurance Corporation, which we refer to as the Hays action. Plaintiffs seek to represent a class of all persons who deposited their exchange funds with LandAmerica 1031 Exchange Service (“LES”) and were not able to use them in their contemplated exchanges due to the alleged illiquidity of LES caused by the collapse of the auction rate security market in early 2008. Plaintiffs allege Commonwealth Land Title Insurance Company and Lawyers Title Insurance Corporation (which was merged into Fidelity National Title Insurance Company) knew of the problems at LES and had an obligation of disclosure to exchangers, but did not disclose and instead recommended exchangers use LES in order to fund prior exchangers' transactions with money from new exchangers. In the initial complaint, plaintiffs sued our subsidiaries Commonwealth Land Title Insurance Company and Lawyers Title Insurance Corporation for negligence, breach of fiduciary duty, constructive fraud and aiding and abetting LES. Plaintiffs ask for compensatory and punitive damages, prejudgment interest and reasonable attorney's fees. The case was transferred on our motion to a Multi-District Litigation proceeding in South Carolina and a status conference was held on April 22, 2011.  This case was stayed until a decision was made on motions pending in a similar class action against an unrelated party. The court in that case ruled on June 15, 2011 on the motion to dismiss the complaint filed by the unrelated party and dismissed the complaint. The plaintiffs in the case against Commonwealth Land Title Insurance Company and Lawyers Title Insurance Corporation filed an amended complaint on August 15, 2011. The complaint added approximately twenty new plaintiffs and two new defendants; Commonwealth Land Title Company and LandAmerica Charter Title Company, both of which are affiliates of FNF. It also expanded the causes of action. The new causes of action are aiding and abetting fraud committed by LES; conspiracy to commit fraud with LES; aiding and abetting breach of fiduciary duty by LES; aiding and abetting conversion of trust funds by LES; enterprise liability; negligence; breach of fiduciary duty; conversion of escrow funds and RICO liability. We filed a motion to dismiss the second amended complaint on September 30, 2011 as we believe we have strong legal and factual defenses to this action. The amended complaint did not seek a specified amount of damages as to each of the plaintiffs but is seeking damages to plaintiffs and potential class members measured by the loss of their property, consequential damages and other elements of damages including punitive and treble damages. A hearing on the motion to dismiss was held on January 17, 2012 but no ruling has been issued. We are uncertain as to the total volume of claims against LES that remain unsatisfied; however in a related case, on January 26, 2012 the LES liquidation trust filed a motion to approve a settlement agreement between the LES liquidation trust, the LFG liquidation trust and certain underwriters at Lloyd's of London with the Bankruptcy Court for the Eastern District of Virginia. The motion asks the bankruptcy court to approve the settlement, which would have the effect of exhausting all insurance coverage for the LandAmerica Financial Group, Inc. (“LFG”) entities, including the entities FNF purchased ("FNF entities") from LFG that are named as defendants in the Hays action.  The FNF entities are co-insureds under the Lloyds policies, had made claims based on the LES 1031 litigation, and other claims as a result of operations.  Despite having made these claims as co-insureds, and having requested notice, and an opportunity to negotiate with Lloyds and the LES liquidation trust to find a mutually acceptable resolution to all claims, Lloyds and LES excluded the FNF entities from the settlement negotiation.  On February 17, 2012 the FNF entities filed an objection to approval of the settlement.  The FNF entities argued that the self-insured retention amounts and potential coverage have not been sufficiently disclosed and/or are incorrectly calculated, as well as that it is inequitable to exhaust coverage under the policy by settling with the LES liquidation trust leaving our claims unsatisfied.  The matter is scheduled for hearing on February 23, 2012. In the settlement agreement, LES asserts total losses in excess of $300 million for exchange funds and taxes lost as well as defense costs of more than $12 million. According to the settlement agreement, the LES liquidation trust or the LFG liquidation trust have already paid more than $200 million of the total losses to claimants. If the settlement agreement is approved, $38 million would be distributed under certain Lloyds insurance coverages pursuant to the settlement agreement. Based on the facts of the settlement agreement, and assuming the Lloyds settlement is approved, which it may not be, $74 million of losses and attorney's fees remain unpaid. In order to make any meaningful estimate of our potential exposure, if any, under this case, we must consider multiple variables, including the following.   First, it is uncertain what, if any, of the causes of action plead will remain after the court rules on our motion to dismiss.  Also, at this time, no discovery has been undertaken or exchanged between the parties.  The potential population of plaintiffs and/or class members under each cause of action alleged against us has not been determined and therefore neither has the amount of the potential compensatory loss for the exchange amount or other interest and tax savings allegedly lost. Our potential exposure will also be affected by the approval of the LES settlement agreement discussed above as well as other related cases that are outstanding. Due to these factors, among others, and the early stage of this case, it is not possible to make a meaningful estimate of the amount or range of loss to the Company, if any, that could result from this case at this time. We intend to continue to vigorously defend this action.

From time to time we receive inquiries and requests for information from state insurance departments, attorneys general and other regulatory agencies about various matters relating to our business. Sometimes these take the form of civil investigative demands or subpoenas. We cooperate with all such inquiries and we have responded to or are currently responding to inquiries from multiple governmental agencies. Also, regulators and courts have been dealing with issues arising from foreclosures and its processes and documentation. All of such matters may in the future result in claims or fines to the Company. 

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Various governmental entities are studying the title insurance product, market, pricing, and business practices, and potential regulatory and legislative changes, which may materially affect our business and operations. From time to time, we are assessed fines for violations of regulations or other matters or enter into settlements with such authorities which may require us to pay money or take other actions.


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PART II


Item 5.
Market for Registrant's Common Equity, Related Stockholder Matters and Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities
 
Stock Price High
 
Stock Price Low
 
Cash Dividends
Declared
Year ended December 31, 2011
 

 
 

 
 

First quarter
$
14.86

 
$
13.07

 
$
0.12

Second quarter
16.15

 
14.14

 
0.12

Third quarter
17.43

 
14.58

 
0.12

Fourth quarter
16.46

 
14.03

 
0.12

 
 
 
 
 
 
Year ended December 31, 2010
 

 
 

 
 

First quarter
$
15.05

 
$
12.74

 
$
0.15

Second quarter
15.84

 
12.85

 
0.18

Third quarter
16.07

 
12.60

 
0.18

Fourth quarter
15.92

 
12.74

 
0.18


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PERFORMANCE GRAPH
Set forth below is a graph comparing cumulative total stockholder return on our common stock against the cumulative total return on the S & P 500 Index and against the cumulative total return of a peer group index consisting of certain companies in the primary industry in which we compete (SIC code 6361 — Title Insurance) for the period ending December 31, 2011. This peer group consists of the following companies: First American Financial Corporation and Stewart Information Services Corp. The peer group comparison has been weighted based on their stock market capitalization. The graph assumes an initial investment of $100.00 on December 31, 2006, with dividends reinvested over the periods indicated.

Comparison of 5 Year Cumulative Total Return
Among Fidelity National Financial, Inc., the S&P 500 Index
and Peer Group

 
 
 
12/31/2006
12/31/2007

12/31/2008
12/31/2009
12/31/2010
12/31/2011
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Fidelity National Financial, Inc.
 
100.00

64.93

84.61

66.80

71.27

85.66

S&P 500
 
100.00

105.49

66.46

84.05

96.71

98.75

Peer Group
 
100.00

81.87

71.78

78.22

63.81

56.08

 On January 31, 2012 the last reported sale price of our common stock on the New York Stock Exchange was $18.19 per share and we had approximately 5,311 stockholders of record.
 On February 8, 2012, our Board of Directors formally declared a $0.14 per share cash dividend that is payable on March 30, 2012 to stockholders of record as of March 16, 2012.
 Our current dividend policy anticipates the payment of quarterly dividends in the future. The declaration and payment of dividends will be at the discretion of our Board of Directors and will be dependent upon our future earnings, financial condition and capital requirements. Our ability to declare dividends is subject to restrictions under our existing credit agreement. We do not believe the restrictions contained in our credit agreement will, in the foreseeable future, adversely affect our ability to pay cash dividends at the current dividend rate.
 Since we are a holding company, our ability to pay dividends will depend largely on the ability of our subsidiaries to pay dividends to us, and the ability of our title insurance subsidiaries to do so is subject to, among other factors, their compliance with applicable insurance regulations. As of December 31, 2011, $2,203.3 million of our net assets are restricted from dividend payments without prior approval from the Departments of Insurance in the States where our title insurance subsidiaries are domiciled. During

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2012, our directly owned title insurance subsidiaries can pay dividends or make distributions to us of approximately $107.6 million without prior approval. The limits placed on such subsidiaries’ abilities to pay dividends affect our ability to pay dividends.
On July 21, 2009, our Board of Directors approved a three-year stock repurchase program under which we can repurchase up to 15 million shares through July 31, 2012. On January 27, 2011, our Board of Directors approved an additional 5 million shares that may be repurchased under the program. We may make repurchases from time to time in the open market, in block purchases or in privately negotiated transactions, depending on market conditions and other factors. Since the original commencement of the plan, and through December 31, 2011, we have repurchased a total of 15,378,512 shares for $221.7 million, or an average of $14.42 per share. For more information, see “Liquidity and Capital Resources” in Item 7 of this Form 10-K.    
The following table summarizes repurchases of equity securities by FNF during the year ending December 31, 2011.
Period
 
Total Number of Shares Purchased
 
Average Price Paid per Share
 
Total Number of Shares Purchased as Part of Publicly Announced Plans or Programs
 
Maximum Number of Shares that May Yet Be Purchased Under the Plans or Programs (1)
1/1/2011 - 1/31/2011
 
30,000

 
$
13.74

 
30,000

 
10,011,338

2/1/2011 - 2/28/2011
 
730,150

 
13.88

 
730,150

 
9,281,188

3/1/2011 - 3/31/2011
 
50,000

 
13.82

 
50,000

 
9,231,188

4/1/2011 - 4/30/2011
 

 

 

 
9,231,188

5/1/2011 - 5/31/2011
 

 

 

 
9,231,188

6/1/2011 - 6/30/2011
 

 

 

 
9,231,188

7/1/2011 - 7/31/2011
 
4,609,700

 
16.27

 
4,609,700

 
4,621,488

8/1/2011 - 8/31/2011
 

 

 

 
4,621,488

9/1/2011 - 9/30/2011
 

 

 

 
4,621,488

10/1/2011 - 10/31/2011
 

 

 

 
4,621,488

11/1/2011 - 11/30/2011
 

 

 

 
4,621,488

12/1/2011 - 12/31/2011
 

 

 

 
4,621,488

 
 
5,419,850

 
$
15.90

 
5,419,850

 
 
________________________
(1) As of the last day of the applicable month.


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Item 6.     Selected Financial Data
The information set forth below should be read in conjunction with the consolidated financial statements and related notes and “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” included elsewhere in this Form 10-K. Certain reclassifications have been made to the prior year amounts to conform with the 2011 presentation.

On December 22, 2008, we completed the acquisition of LandAmerica Financial Group's two principal title insurance underwriters, Commonwealth Land Title Insurance Company and Lawyers Title Insurance Corporation, as well as United Capital Title Insurance Company (collectively, the “LFG Underwriters”). For periods subsequent to December 22, 2008, the LFG Underwriters are included in our consolidated financial statements.
 
Year Ended December 31,
 
2011
 
2010
 
2009(1)
 
2008(2)
 
2007(3)
 
(Dollars in millions, except share data)
Operating Data:
 

 
 

 
 

 
 

 
 

Revenue
$
4,839.6

 
$
5,413.3

 
$
5,521.3

 
$
3,935.6

 
$
5,136.7

Expenses:
 

 
 

 
 

 
 

 
 

Personnel costs
1,578.0

 
1,578.6

 
1,620.0

 
1,291.8

 
1,640.2

Other operating expenses
1,083.0

 
1,145.5

 
1,228.1

 
1,062.1

 
975.8

Agent commissions
1,410.8

 
1,758.7

 
1,951.7

 
1,218.0

 
1,698.2

Depreciation and amortization
73.5

 
86.7

 
105.0

 
117.3

 
122.4

Provision for title claim losses
222.3

 
248.9

 
264.7

 
491.0

 
502.2

Interest expense
57.2

 
46.2

 
36.7

 
58.2

 
51.9

 
4,424.8

 
4,864.6

 
5,206.2

 
4,238.4

 
4,990.7

Earnings (loss) before income taxes, equity in earnings (loss) of unconsolidated affiliates, and noncontrolling interest
414.8

 
548.7

 
315.1

 
(302.8
)
 
146.0

Income tax expense (benefit)
134.4

 
189.8

 
96.8

 
(128.1
)
 
35.6

Earnings (loss) before equity in earnings (loss) of unconsolidated affiliates
280.4

 
358.9

 
218.3

 
(174.7
)
 
110.4

Equity in earnings (loss) of unconsolidated affiliates
9.7

 
(1.2
)
 
(11.7
)
 
(13.4
)
 
0.8

Earnings (loss) from continuing operations, net of tax
290.1

 
357.7

 
206.6

 
(188.1
)
 
111.2

Earnings from discontinued operations, net of tax
89.0

 
17.9

 
17.9

 
4.9

 
18.6

Net earnings (loss)
379.1

 
375.6

 
224.5

 
(183.2
)
 
129.8

Less: net earnings (loss) attributable to noncontrolling interests
9.6

 
5.5

 
2.2

 
(4.2
)
 

Net earnings (loss) attributable to FNF common shareholders
$
369.5

 
$
370.1

 
$
222.3

 
$
(179.0
)
 
$
129.8


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Year Ended December 31,
 
2011
 
2010
 
2009(1)
 
2008(2)
 
2007(3)
 
(Dollars in millions, except share data)
Per Share Data (4):
 

 
 

 
 

 
 

 
 

Basic net earnings (loss) per share attributable to FNF common shareholders
$
1.69

 
$
1.64

 
$
0.99

 
$
(0.85
)
 
$
0.60

Weighted average shares outstanding, basic basis (4)
219.0

 
226.2

 
224.7

 
210.0

 
216.6

Diluted net earnings (loss) per share attributable to FNF common shareholders
$
1.66

 
$
1.61

 
$
0.97

 
$
(0.85
)
 
$
0.59

Weighted average shares outstanding, diluted basis (4)
222.7

 
229.3

 
228.5

 
210.0

 
220.0

Dividends declared per share
$
0.48

 
$
0.69

 
$
0.60

 
$
1.05

 
$
1.20

Balance Sheet Data:
 

 
 

 
 

 
 

 
 

Investments (5)
$
4,051.7

 
$
4,358.5

 
$
4,685.4

 
$
4,376.5

 
$
4,101.8

Cash and cash equivalents (6)
665.7

 
580.8

 
202.1

 
315.3

 
569.6

Total assets
7,862.1

 
7,887.5

 
7,934.4

 
8,368.2

 
7,587.8

Notes payable
915.8

 
952.0

 
861.9

 
1,350.8

 
1,167.7

Reserve for claim losses (7)
1,912.8

 
2,270.1

 
2,539.2

 
2,735.7

 
1,416.7

Equity
3,655.9

 
3,444.4

 
3,344.9

 
2,856.8

 
3,298.0

Book value per share (8)
$
16.57

 
$
15.39

 
$
14.53

 
$
13.29

 
$
15.48

Other Data:
 

 
 

 
 

 
 

 
 

Orders opened by direct title operations (in 000's)
2,140.1

 
2,385.3

 
2,611.4

 
1,860.4

 
2,259.8

Orders closed by direct title operations (in 000's)
1,514.2

 
1,574.3

 
1,792.0

 
1,121.2

 
1,434.8

Provision for title insurance claim losses as a percent of title insurance premiums (7)
6.8
%
 
6.8
%
 
5.1
%
 
18.2
%
 
13.2
%
Title related revenue (9):
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Percentage direct operations
61.0
%
 
55.6
%
 
54.2
%
 
59.4
%
 
55.6
%
Percentage agency operations
39.0
%
 
44.4
%
 
45.8
%
 
40.6
%
 
44.4
%
______________________________________
(1)
Our financial results for the year ended December 31, 2009, include a decrease to our provision for claim losses of $74.4 million ($47.1 million net of income taxes) as a result of favorable claim loss development on prior policy years, offset by an increase to the provision for claim losses of $63.2 million ($40.0 million net of income taxes) as a result of unfavorable developments in the third quarter on a previously recorded insurance receivable.

(2)
Our financial results for the year ended December 31, 2008, include a charge to our provision for claim losses of $261.6 million ($154.1 million net of income taxes) which we recorded as a result of adverse claim loss development on prior policy years.

(3)
Our financial results for the year ended December 31, 2007, include charges to our provision for claim losses totaling $217.2 million ($159.5 million net of income taxes) which we recorded as a result of adverse claim loss development on prior policy years.

(4)
Weighted average shares outstanding as of December 31, 2009 includes 18,170,000 shares that were issued as part of an equity offering by FNF on April 20, 2009.

(5)
Investments as of December 31, 2011, 2010, 2009, 2008, and 2007, include securities pledged to secured trust deposits of $274.2 million, $252.1 million, $288.7 million, $382.6 million, and $513.8 million, respectively.

(6)
Cash and cash equivalents as of December 31, 2011, 2010, 2009, 2008, and 2007 include cash pledged to secured trust deposits of $161.3 million, $146.2 million, $96.8 million, $109.6 million, and $193.5 million, respectively.

(7)
As a result of favorable title insurance claim loss development on prior policy years, we recorded a credit in 2009 totaling $74.4 million, or $47.1 million net of income taxes, to our provision for claims losses. As a result of adverse title insurance claim loss development on prior policy years, we recorded charges in 2008 totaling $261.6 million, or $154.1 million

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net of income taxes, and in 2007 totaling $217.2 million, or $159.5 million net of income taxes, to our provision for claim losses. These credits/charges were recorded in addition to our average provision for claim losses of 7.3%, 8.5% and 7.5% for the years ended December 31, 2009, 2008, and 2007, respectively.

(8)
Book value per share is calculated as equity at December 31 of each year presented divided by actual shares outstanding at December 31 of each year presented.

(9)
Includes title insurance premiums and escrow, title-related and other fees.
Selected Quarterly Financial Data (Unaudited)
Selected quarterly financial data is as follows:
 
Quarter Ended
 
March 31,
 
June 30,
 
September 30,
 
December 31,
 
(Dollars in millions, except per share data)
2011
 

 
 

 
 

 
 

Revenue
$
1,131.9

 
$
1,233.7

 
$
1,201.1

 
$
1,272.9

Earnings from continuing operations before income taxes, equity in earnings of unconsolidated affiliates, and noncontrolling interest
77.1

 
109.2

 
111.6

 
116.9

Net earnings attributable to Fidelity National Financial, Inc. common shareholders
42.5

 
80.0

 
74.3

 
172.7

Basic earnings per share attributable to Fidelity National Financial, Inc. common shareholders
0.19

 
0.36

 
0.34

 
0.80

Diluted earnings per share attributable to Fidelity National Financial, Inc. common shareholders
0.19

 
0.36

 
0.33

 
0.78

Dividends paid per share
0.12

 
0.12

 
0.12

 
0.12

2010
 

 
 

 
 

 
 

Revenue
$
1,143.2

 
$
1,411.0

 
$
1,330.4

 
$
1,528.7

Earnings from continuing operations before income taxes, equity in loss of unconsolidated affiliates, and noncontrolling interest
40.5

 
206.9

 
118.8

 
182.5

Net earnings attributable to Fidelity National Financial, Inc. common shareholders
16.5

 
139.6

 
83.2

 
130.8

Basic earnings per share attributable to Fidelity National Financial, Inc. common shareholders
0.07

 
0.61

 
0.37

 
0.58

Diluted earnings per share attributable to Fidelity National Financial, Inc. common shareholders
0.07

 
0.61

 
0.36

 
0.58

Dividends paid per share
0.15

 
0.18

 
0.18

 
0.18



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Item 7.  
Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations
The following discussion should be read in conjunction with the Consolidated Financial Statements and the Notes thereto and Selected Financial Data included elsewhere in this Form 10-K.
Overview
We are a holding company that through our subsidiaries provides title insurance, mortgage services, and diversified services. We are the nation's largest title insurance company through our title insurance underwriters — Fidelity National Title, Chicago Title, Commonwealth Land Title, and Alamo Title — which collectively issued more title insurance policies in 2011 than any other title company in the United States. We own a minority interest in Ceridian Corporation (“Ceridian”), a leading provider of global human capital management and payment solutions. We also own a minority interest in Remy International, Inc. (“Remy”), a leading designer, manufacturer, remanufacturer, marketer and distributor of aftermarket and original equipment electrical components for automobiles, light trucks, heavy-duty trucks and other vehicles and American Blue Ribbon Holdings, LLC, an owner and operator of the Village Inn, Bakers Square and Max & Erma's restaurants.
We currently have two reporting segments as follows:
Fidelity National Title Group. This segment consists of the operations of FNF’s title insurance underwriters and related businesses. This segment provides core title insurance and escrow and other title related services including collection and trust activities, trustee’s sales guarantees, recordings and reconveyances, and home warranty insurance.
Corporate and Other.  The corporate and other segment consists of the operations of the parent holding company, certain other unallocated corporate overhead expenses, other smaller operations, and our share in the operations of certain equity investments, including Ceridian and Remy and our former investment in Sedgwick in 2009 and 2010.
Recent Developments

On February 5, 2012, we entered into a definitive agreement to acquire all of the outstanding shares of common stock of O'Charley's Inc., which operates more than 340 full-service restaurants under the O'Charley's, Ninety Nine and Stoney River Legendary Steaks concepts, that we do not currently own for $9.85 per share in cash. O'Charley's Inc. had 21,967,041 shares outstanding as of December 31, 2011. We own 2,079,542 or 9.5% of the outstanding shares of O'Charley's Inc. common stock prior to the tender offer. The merger is expected to close in May 2012 and is subject to successful completion of the tender and other customary closing conditions.

On December 27, 2011, we entered into a definitive agreement under which we will sell an 85% interest in our remaining subsidiaries that write personal lines insurance to WT Holdings, Inc. for approximately $119.5 million. The sales price is subject to typical closing adjustments based on working capital and surplus. The transaction is expected to close by the second quarter of 2012 and is subject to regulatory approval and closing conditions. Accordingly, the results of this business (which we refer to as our "at-risk" insurance business) for all periods presented are reflected as discontinued operations. The at-risk insurance business sale is expected to result in a pre-tax loss of approximately $15.1 million, which was recorded in the fourth quarter of 2011. See note A of the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements for further details on this transaction.

On October 31, 2011, we completed the sale of our flood insurance business to WRM America Holdings LLC for $135.0 million in cash and dividends, and a $75.0 million seller note. The seller note has an eight percent annual interest coupon, with interest payable quarterly and principal payable in full eighteen months subsequent to closing. Accordingly, the results of the flood insurance business for all periods presented are reflected as discontinued operations. The flood insurance business sale resulted in a pre-tax gain of approximately $154.1 million. See note A of the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements for further details on this transaction.

On August 2, 2011, we completed an offering of $300.0 million in aggregate principal amount of 4.25% convertible senior notes due August 2018 (the "Notes"), pursuant to an effective registration statement previously filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission. The Notes were issued for cash at 100% of their principal amount. However, for financial reporting purposes, the notes were deemed to have been issued at 92.818% of par value, and as such we recorded a discount of $21.5 million to be amortized to August 2018, when the notes mature. The Notes will be convertible into cash, shares of common stock, or a combination of cash and shares of common stock, at our election, based on an initial conversion rate, subject to adjustment. We used $75.0 million of the proceeds from the Notes to purchase 4,609,700 shares of our common stock at $16.27 per share in privately negotiated transactions concurrently with the issuance. We used the remaining net proceeds along with other cash on hand for repayment of $250.0 million outstanding debt on our revolving credit agreement. Interest is payable semi-annually. See note H of the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements.


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Related Party Transactions
 
Our financial statements reflect transactions with Fidelity National Information Services ("FIS"), which is a related party, and with Lender Processing Services ("LPS") through March 15, 2009, which was a related party until that date. See note A of the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements.
 Business Trends and Conditions

Title insurance revenue is closely related to the level of real estate activity which includes sales, mortgage financing and mortgage refinancing. The levels of real estate activity are primarily affected by the average price of real estate sales, the availability of funds to finance purchases and mortgage interest rates. Declines in the level of real estate activity or the average price of real estate sales will adversely affect our title insurance revenues. Both the volume and the average price of residential real estate transactions have experienced declines in many parts of the country over the past several years from 2005 and prior levels, resulting in a reduction of revenues in our businesses. These trends appear likely to continue.
We have found that residential real estate activity generally decreases in the following situations:
when mortgage interest rates are high or increasing;

when the mortgage funding supply is limited; and
when the United States economy is weak, including during high unemployment levels.
In 2007, as interest rates on adjustable rate mortgages reset to higher rates, foreclosures on subprime mortgage loans increased to record levels. This resulted in a significant decrease in levels of available mortgage funding as investors became wary of the risks associated with investing in subprime mortgage loans. In addition, tighter lending standards and a bearish outlook on the real estate environment caused potential home buyers to become reluctant to purchase homes. In 2008, the increase in foreclosure activity, which had previously been limited to the subprime mortgage market, became more widespread as borrowers encountered difficulties in attempting to refinance their adjustable rate mortgages. In the last three years, the elevated mortgage delinquency and default rates caused negative operating results at a number of banks and financial institutions and, as a result, significantly reduced the level of lending activity. Multiple banks have failed over the past three years and others may fail in the future, further reducing the capacity of the mortgage industry to make loans.
Since December of 2008, the Federal Reserve has held the federal funds rate at 0.0%-0.25%, and has indicated that rates will stay at this level at least through late 2014. This action by the Federal Reserve, along with other government programs designed to increase liquidity in the mortgage markets, resulted in a significant increase in our refinance order volumes in December 2008 and continued to positively affect our revenues through the first nine months of 2009. In the fourth quarter of 2009 and through 2010, we again experienced a decline in order volumes. Mortgage interest rates remained at historically low levels throughout 2010 and continued to decrease in 2011.
According to the MBA, U.S. mortgage originations (including refinancings) were approximately $1.3 trillion, $1.6 trillion and $2.0 trillion in 2011, 2010 and 2009, respectively. The MBA’s Mortgage Finance Forecast currently estimates an approximately $1.0 trillion mortgage origination market for 2012, which would be a decrease of 23.1% from 2011. The MBA forecasts that the 23.1% decrease will result almost entirely from decreased refinance activity.
 Several pieces of legislation were enacted to address the struggling mortgage market and the current economic and financial environment. One of these programs, the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009, passed on February 17, 2009, was a $787 billion stimulus package, that provided an array of types of relief for homebuyers, such as an $8,000 tax credit that became available to first-time homebuyers for the purchase of a principal residence. The first-time homebuyers tax credit program expired on September 30, 2010. We believe these measures had a positive impact on our 2010 order volumes. More recently, on October 24, 2011, the Federal Housing Finance Agency announced a series of changes to the Home Affordable Refinance Program ("HARP") which would make it easier for certain borrowers who owe more than their home is worth and who are current on their mortgage payments to refinance their mortgages at lower interest rates. The new program reduces or eliminates the risk-based fees Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac charge on many loans, raises the loan-to-home value ratio requirement for refinancing, and streamlines the underwriting process. According to the Federal Housing Authority ("FHA"), lenders began taking refinancing applications on December 1, 2011 under the modified HARP program but it could take several months before the new loans are made and Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac will not begin buying certain types of refinanced loans until March 2012. We are uncertain to what degree the modified HARP program may affect our results in the future.

On February 1, 2012, the Obama Administration announced new initiatives designed to increase refinancing of mortgages,

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reduce foreclosures and improve the housing market. Under these initiatives, among other things: (i) certain borrowers with loans insured by Fannie Mae or Freddie Mac ("GSEs" and such loans, "GSE loans") and certain borrowers with non-GSE loans, through a new FHA program, would be able to refinance their mortgages and take advantage of historically low interest rates; (ii) the FHA will begin transitioning foreclosed properties in the nations hardest-hit cities into rental housing units; (iii) GSEs and major banks have begun offering one year of forbearance (up from three months) to certain unemployed borrowers; and (iv) the Home Affordable Modification Program ("HAMP") was extended through 2013, including easing the eligibility requirements and increasing the financial incentives for banks to participate. As indicated, the Obama Administration has already begun implementing these initiatives, except for the refinancing initiatives; however, the GSEs have not started the refinancing program. The Obama Administration is looking to Congress to pass legislation to implement a refinancing program for non-GSE loans. We are uncertain to what degree these initiatives may affect our results in the future.

During 2010, a number of lenders imposed freezes on foreclosures in some or all states as they reviewed their foreclosure practices. In response to these freezes, the Office of the Comptroller of the Currency ("OCC") is concurrently reviewing the foreclosure practices in the residential mortgage loan servicing industry.  On April 13, 2011, the OCC and other federal regulators announced formal consent orders against several national bank mortgage servicers and third-party servicer providers for inappropriate practices related to residential mortgage loan servicing and foreclosure processing.  The consent orders require the servicers to promptly correct deficiencies and make improvements in practices for residential mortgage loan servicing and foreclosure processing, including improvements to future communications with borrowers and a comprehensive "look back" to assess whether foreclosures complied with federal and state laws and whether any deficiencies in the process or related documentation resulted in financial injury to borrowers. We are not involved in these enforcement actions and we do not believe that we are exposed to significant losses resulting from faulty foreclosure practices. Our title insurance underwriters issue title policies on real estate owned properties to new purchasers and lenders to those purchasers. We believe that these policies will not result in significant additional claims exposure to us because even if a court sets aside a foreclosure due to a defect in documentation, the foreclosing lender would be required to return to our insureds all funds obtained from them, resulting in reduced exposure under the title insurance policy. Further, we believe that under current law and the rights we have under our policies, we would have the right to seek recovery from the foreclosing lender in the event of a failure to comply with state laws or local practices in connection with a foreclosure. Many states continue to evaluate foreclosure practices and related legislation may change in the future. As with the freezes on foreclosures in 2010, the consent orders imposed by the  federal regulators may continue to delay lender foreclosure completions.

On February 9, 2012, federal officials, state attorneys general and representatives of Bank of America, JP Morgan Chase, Wells Fargo, Citigroup and Ally Financial agreed to a $25 billion settlement of federal and state investigations into the foreclosure practices of banks and other mortgage servicers from September 2008 to December 2011. Under the settlement, approximately one million underwater borrowers will have their mortgages reduced by lenders and 300,000 homeowners will be able to refinance their homes at lower interest rates. We are uncertain to what degree these initiatives may affect our results in the future.

Historically, real estate transactions have produced seasonal revenue levels for title insurers. The first calendar quarter is typically the weakest quarter in terms of revenue due to the generally low volume of home sales during January and February. The third calendar quarter has been typically the strongest in terms of revenue primarily due to a higher volume of home sales in the summer months and the fourth quarter is usually also strong due to commercial entities desiring to complete transactions by year-end. In the past five years we have seen a divergence from these historical trends with orders being negatively affected by a reduction in the availability of financing, rising default levels, and falling home values causing an overall downward trend in home sales. In addition we have noted short term fluctuations through recent years in resale and refinance transactions as a result of changes in interest rates and the implementation and subsequent expiration of government programs designed to stimulate the real estate market.
Because commercial real estate transactions tend to be driven more by supply and demand for commercial space and occupancy rates in a particular area rather than by macroeconomic events, we believe that our commercial real estate title insurance business is less dependent on the industry cycles discussed above than our residential real estate title business. However, from 2007 to 2009 we experienced a significant decrease in our average commercial fee per file, which we believe was due, in part, to a decrease in the number of closings of larger deals due to difficulties or delays in obtaining financing. During 2010 and especially 2011, we again saw an increase in fee per file and in the volume of commercial transactions, which may indicate an improvement in availability of financing in the commercial markets.
Our revenues in future periods will continue to be subject to these and other factors which are beyond our control and, as a result, are likely to fluctuate.       



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Critical Accounting Estimates
The accounting estimates described below are those we consider critical in preparing our Consolidated Financial Statements. Management is required to make estimates and assumptions that can affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities and disclosures with respect to contingent assets and liabilities at the date of the Consolidated Financial Statements and the reported amounts of revenues and expenses during the reporting period. Actual amounts could differ from those estimates. See note A of Notes to the Consolidated Financial Statements for additional description of the significant accounting policies that have been followed in preparing our Consolidated Financial Statements.
Reserve for Claim Losses.  Title companies issue two types of policies, owner's and lender's policies, since both the new owner and the lender in real estate transactions want to know that their interest in the property is insured against certain title defects outlined in the policy. An owner's policy insures the buyer against such defects for as long as he or she owns the property (as well as against warranty claims arising out of the sale of the property by such owner). A lender's policy insures the priority of the lender's security interest over the claims that other parties may have in the property. The maximum amount of liability under a title insurance policy is generally the face amount of the policy plus the cost of defending the insured's title against an adverse claim, however, occasionally we do incur losses in excess of policy limits. While most non-title forms of insurance, including property and casualty, provide for the assumption of risk of loss arising out of unforeseen future events, title insurance serves to protect the policyholder from risk of loss for events that predate the issuance of the policy.
 
Unlike many other forms of insurance, title insurance requires only a one-time premium for continuous coverage until another policy is warranted due to changes in property circumstances arising from refinance, resale, additional liens, or other events. Unless we issue the subsequent policy, we receive no notice that our exposure under our policy has ended and, as a result, we are unable to track the actual terminations of our exposures.
 
Our reserve for title claim losses includes reserves for known claims as well as for losses that have been incurred but not yet reported to us (“IBNR”), net of recoupments. We reserve for each known claim based on our review of the estimated amount of the claim and the costs required to settle the claim. Reserves for IBNR claims are estimates that are established at the time the premium revenue is recognized and are based upon historical experience and other factors, including industry trends, claim loss history, legal environment, geographic considerations, and the types of policies written. We also reserve for losses arising from escrow, closing and disbursement functions due to fraud or operational error. As of December 31, 2011 and 2010, our reserve for title claim losses was $1.9 billion and $2.2 billion, respectively.
 
Although claims against title insurance policies can be reported relatively soon after the policy has been issued, claims may be reported many years later. Historically, approximately 60% of claims are paid within approximately five years of the policy being written. By their nature, claims are often complex, vary greatly in dollar amounts and are affected by economic and market conditions, as well as the legal environment existing at the time of settlement of the claims. Estimating future title loss payments is difficult because of the complex nature of title claims, the long periods of time over which claims are paid, significantly varying dollar amounts of individual claims and other factors.
Our process for recording our reserves for claim losses begins with analysis of our loss provision rate. We forecast ultimate losses for each policy year based upon historical policy year loss emergence (development) patterns and adjust these to reflect policy year and policy type differences which affect the timing, frequency and severity of claims. We also use a technique that relies on historical loss emergence and on a premium-based exposure measurement. The latter technique is particularly applicable to the most recent policy years, which have few reported claims relative to an expected ultimate claim volume. After considering historical claim losses, reporting patterns and current market information, and analyzing quantitative and qualitative data provided by our legal, claims and underwriting departments, we determine a loss provision rate, which is recorded as a percentage of current title premiums. This loss provision rate is set to provide for losses on current year policies, but due to development of prior years and our long claim duration, it periodically includes minor amounts of estimated adverse or positive development on prior years' policies.  Any significant adjustments to strengthen or release loss reserves resulting from the comparison with our actuarial analysis are made in addition to this loss provision rate.  We have been recording our periodic loss provision rate at 6.8% of title premiums in 2011 and 2010 and at 5.1% of title premiums in 2009. Of such amounts, 5.8%, 6.0% and 7.3% related to losses on policies written in the current year, and the remainder relates to developments on prior year policies. In 2011, adverse development of $33.6 million or 1.0% of 2011 premiums was accounted for in the loss provision rate. At each quarter end, our recorded reserve for claim losses is initially the result of taking the prior recorded reserve for claim losses, adding the current provision and subtracting actual paid claims, resulting in an amount that management then compares to the range of reasonable estimates provided by the actuarial calculation. This process resulted in us recording additional adjustments to our stated loss provision in 2009, as noted below.
 
Due to the uncertainty inherent in the process and due to the judgment used by both management and our actuary, our ultimate liability may be greater or less than our carried reserves. If the recorded amount is within the actuarial range but not at the central

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estimate, we assess the position within the actuarial range by analysis of other factors in order to determine that the recorded amount is our best estimate. These factors, which are more qualitative than quantitative, can change from period to period, and include items such as current trends in the real estate industry (which we can assess, but for which there is a time lag in the development of the data used by our actuary), any adjustments from the actuarial estimates needed for the effects of unusually large or small claims, improvements in our claims management processes, and other cost saving measures. If the recorded amount is not within a reasonable range of our actuary's central estimate, we may have to record a charge or credit and reassess the loss provision rate on a go forward basis. We will continue to reassess the provision to be recorded in future periods consistent with this methodology.
The table below presents our title insurance loss development experience for the past three years.
 
2011
 
2010
 
2009
 
(In millions)
Beginning balance
$
2,210.9

 
$
2,488.8

 
$
2,679.0

Reserve assumed/transferred (a)

 

 
(3.1
)
Claims loss provision related to:


 


 
 

Current year
188.7

 
218.5

 
286.7

Prior years
33.6

 
30.4

 
(85.2
)
Total title claims loss provision
222.3

 
248.9

 
201.5

Claims paid, net of recoupments related to:
 

 
 

 
 

Current year
(9.9
)
 
(5.7
)
 
(9.7
)
Prior years
(510.5
)
 
(521.1
)
 
(378.9
)
Total title claims paid, net of recoupments
(520.4
)
 
(526.8
)
 
(388.6
)
Ending balance
$
1,912.8

 
$
2,210.9

 
$
2,488.8

Title premiums
$
3,261.1

 
$
3,641.2

 
$
3,927.6

 
2011
 
2010
 
2009
Provision for claim losses as a percentage of title insurance premiums:
 

 
 

 
 

Current year
5.8
%
 
6.0
%
 
7.3
 %
Prior years (b)
1.0

 
0.8

 
(2.2
)
Total provision
6.8
%
 
6.8
%
 
5.1
 %
_____________________________________
(a)
In 2008, we assumed an estimated $1.1 billion in additional reserves for claim losses with the acquisition of the LFG Underwriters. During 2009, we completed our evaluation of the fair value of this claims reserve as of the acquisition date and adjusted the balance by $3.1 million to reflect our best estimate of the fair value of the liability.
(b)
In 2009, we released $74.4 million of our loss reserves in addition to recording our loss provision rate of 7.3%. The release of excess reserves was due to consideration of positive development in our actuary's analysis of our reserve position in light of lower claim payments in 2009.

Actual claims payments are made up of loss payments and claims management expenses offset by recoupments and were as follows (in millions):
 
 
Loss Payments
 
Claims Management Expenses
 
Recoupments
 
Net Loss Payments
Year ending December 31, 2011
 
$
361.4

 
$
215.4

 
$
(56.4
)
 
$
520.4

Year ending December 31, 2010
 
311.9

 
282.0

 
(67.1
)
 
526.8


As of December 31, 2011, the recorded reserve for title insurance claims losses was $1.9 billion, which was approximately $0.1 billion below the central estimate provided by our actuary, but within the provided actuarial range of $1.8 billion to $2.2 billion. We believe that our recorded reserves are reasonable and represent our best estimate. In reaching this conclusion, we considered the following qualitative factors.

Our recorded reserves were below the mid-point of the range of our actuarial estimates as of December 31, 2011 because the actual claims paid were greater than the claims projected to be paid in the model utilized by our actuary. A higher volume of claims

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were settled in 2011 compared to 2010 resulting in higher overall loss payments, offset by the decrease in claims management expenses due to management initiatives relating to use of outside counsel and their fees and additional use of internal counsel in handling claims matters. Overall, net loss payments primarily related to the high volume policy years in the mid-2000s, particularly the 2005-2007 policy years. We believe that this development related to both the fact that these policy years have higher loss ratios and that the reporting of these claims has been accelerated. In addition, due to the volatility of claims payment experience, we have seen expansion of the actuarial range of estimated losses from the central estimate. The reasons for the higher loss payments and payment acceleration are as follows:
 
Historical high prices for real estate (thus higher policy limits as compared to premiums earned)
Increased volume of real estate transactions increased likelihood of errors in the examination and closing process
Increased values and volumes of real estate transactions and weaker loan underwriting standards increased the likelihood of fraudulent transactions
Subsequent declines in home equity values resulted in lender losses that would not have been losses had home equity been maintained
Increased foreclosures resulted in higher litigation costs and acceleration in reporting of claims
Increased exposure to mechanic lien claims from failures of builders and developers
 
In addition, during the first half of 2009 we were integrating the claims processing function of the LFG Underwriters which involved the closing and consolidation of claims centers and subsequent integration into our existing operations.
 
Some traditional actuarial methods, such as paid loss development, are particularly sensitive to distortions in payment activity. We believe that the recent high level of foreclosure activity in 2009 and 2010 noted above is accelerating the reporting of claims, particularly lender claims, thereby increasing paid losses and expenses in 2010 and 2011. As a result, a paid loss development approach may temporarily overstate ultimate cost projections. We believe that losses and expenses related to this accelerated claims activity, specifically losses relating to lender policies, will have a shorter duration and that expected payments relating to these policy years will eventually return to or perhaps even drop below historical levels. We have also seen positive development relating to the 2009 through 2011 policy years, which we believe is indicative of more stringent underwriting standards by us and the lending industry. In addition we have seen significant positive development in residential owners policies due to increased payments on residential lenders policies which inherently limit the potential loss on the related owners policy to the differential in coverage amount between the amount insured under the owner's policy and the amount paid under the residential lender's policy. Also, any residential lender policy claim paid relating to a property that is in foreclosure negates any potential loss under an owner's policy previously issued on the property as the owner has no equity in the property. In addition, the Company has seen significant positive developments in 2011 in claims management expenses as a percentage of our total net losses and these developments are not yet fully reflected in our actuarial analysis. Our ending open claim inventory also decreased from approximately 37,000 claims at December 31, 2010 to 33,000 claims at December 31, 2011. However, if actual claims loss development is worse than currently expected and is not offset by other positive factors, such as continued improvement in claims management expenses and the other factors mentioned above, it is reasonably possible that our recorded reserves may fall outside a reasonable range of our actuary's central estimate, which may require additional reserve strengthening in future periods.

As of December 31, 2010 and 2009, our recorded reserves were $2.2 billion and $2.5 billion which we determined was reasonable and represented our best estimate and these recorded amounts were within a reasonable range of the central estimates provided by our actuaries.
An approximate $32.6 million increase (decrease) in our annualized provision for title claim losses would occur if our loss provision rate were 1% higher (lower), based on 2011 title premiums of $3,261.1 million. A 10% increase (decrease) in the reserve for title claim losses would result in an increase (decrease) in our provision for title claim losses of approximately $191.3 million.
Valuation of Investments.  We regularly review our investment portfolio for factors that may indicate that a decline in fair value of an investment is other-than-temporary. Some factors considered in evaluating whether or not a decline in fair value is other-than-temporary include: (i) our intent and need to sell the investment prior to a period of time sufficient to allow for a recovery in value; (ii) the duration and extent to which the fair value has been less than cost; and (iii) the financial condition and prospects of the issuer. Such reviews are inherently uncertain and the value of the investment may not fully recover or may decline in future periods resulting in a realized loss. Investments are selected for analysis whenever an unrealized loss is greater than a certain threshold that we determine based on the size of our portfolio or by using other qualitative factors. Fixed maturity investments that have unrealized losses caused by interest rate movements are not at risk as we do not anticipate having the need or intent to sell prior to maturity. Unrealized losses on investments in equity securities, preferred stock and fixed maturity instruments that are susceptible to credit related declines are evaluated based on the aforementioned factors. Currently available market data is considered and estimates are made as to the duration and prospects for recovery, and the ability to retain the investment until such recovery takes place. These estimates are revisited quarterly and any material degradation in the prospect for recovery will be

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considered in the other-than-temporary impairment analysis. We believe that our monitoring and analysis has provided for the proper recognition of other-than-temporary impairments over the past three-year period. Any change in estimate in this area will have an impact on the results of operations of the period in which a charge is taken. Our investment portfolio exposure to sub-prime mortgage-backed securities is immaterial.

The fair value hierarchy established by the standard on fair value includes three levels, which are based on the priority of the inputs to the valuation technique. The fair value hierarchy gives the highest priority to quoted prices in active markets for identical assets or liabilities (Level 1) and the lowest priority to unobservable inputs (Level 3). If the inputs used to measure the financial instruments fall within different levels of the hierarchy, the categorization is based on the lowest level input that is significant to the fair value measurement of the instrument.
In accordance with the standard on fair value, our financial assets and liabilities that are recorded in the Consolidated Balance Sheets are categorized based on the inputs to the valuation techniques as follows:
Level 1.  Financial assets and liabilities whose values are based on unadjusted quoted prices for identical assets or liabilities in an active market that we have the ability to access.
Level 2.  Financial assets and liabilities whose values are based on quoted prices in markets that are not active or model inputs that are observable either directly or indirectly for substantially the full term of the asset or liability.
Level 3.  Financial assets and liabilities whose values are based on model inputs that are unobservable.
The following table presents our fair value hierarchy for those assets measured at fair value on a recurring basis as of December 31, 2011 and 2010, respectively:
 
December 31, 2011
 
Level 1
 
Level 2
 
Level 3
 
Total
 
(In millions)
Fixed-maturity securities available for sale
$

 
$
3,457.0

 
$

 
$
3,457.0

Equity securities available for sale
105.7

 

 

 
105.7

Preferred stock available for sale
14.2

 
71.4

 

 
85.6

Other long-term investments

 

 
40.8

 
40.8

Total
$
119.9

 
$
3,528.4

 
$
40.8

 
$
3,689.1

 
December 31, 2010
 
Level 1
 
Level 2
 
Level 3
 
Total
 
(In millions)
Fixed-maturity securities available for sale
$

 
$
3,484.8

 
$
9.5

 
$
3,494.3

Equity securities available for sale
75.2

 

 

 
75.2

Other long-term investments

 

 
90.1

 
90.1

Total
$
75.2

 
$
3,484.8

 
$
99.6

 
$
3,659.6


Our Level 2 fair value measures for fixed-maturities available for sale are provided by third-party pricing services. We utilize one firm for our taxable bond and preferred stock portfolio and another for our tax-exempt bond portfolio. These pricing services are leading global providers of financial market data, analytics and related services to financial institutions. We rely on one price for each instrument to determine the carrying amount of the assets on our balance sheet. The inputs utilized in these pricing methodologies include observable measures such as benchmark yields, reported trades, broker dealer quotes, issuer spreads, two sided markets, benchmark securities, bids, offers and reference data including market research publications. We review the pricing methodologies for all of our Level 2 securities by obtaining an understanding of the valuation models and assumptions used by the third-party as well as independently comparing the resulting prices to other publicly available measures of fair value and internally developed models.

Our Level 3 investments consist of structured notes that were purchased in the third quarter of 2009, and in 2010 also include auction rate securities which were included in the assets of the LFG Underwriters acquired on December 22, 2008. The structured notes are held for general investment purposes and represent less than one percent of our total investment portfolio. The structured notes are classified as other long-term investments and are measured in their entirety at fair value with changes in fair value recognized in earnings. The fair value of these instruments are the product of a proprietary valuation model utilized by the trading desk of the broker-dealer and contain assumptions relating to volatility, the level of interest rates, and the underlying value of the indexes, exchange-traded funds, and foreign currencies. We review the pricing methodologies for our Level 3 investments to

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ensure that they are reasonable and believe they represent an exit price as of December 31, 2011.

During 2011, we incurred impairment charges of $17.1 million relating to investments that were determined to be other-than-temporarily impaired. Impairment charges in 2011 related to fixed maturity securities primarily resulting from our conclusion that the credit risk related to the holdings was high and the ability of the issuer to pay the full amount of the principal outstanding was unlikely. We recorded no impairment charges to our investments during 2010. During 2009, we incurred impairment charges relating to investments that were determined to be other-than-temporarily impaired, which resulted in charges of $6.9 million. Impairment charges in 2009 related to equity securities that were deemed other-than-temporarily impaired. The impairment charges relating to the equity securities were based on the duration and severity of the unrealized loss and our inability to reasonably predict the time to recover if the investment continued to be held.

Included in our available for sale fixed maturity securities are various holdings in European company debt instruments. We hold Belgian securities with a fair value of $15.4 million, German securities with a fair value of $14.2 million, Irish securities with a fair value of $17.5 million, Spanish securities with a fair value of $9.2 million, Swiss securities with a fair value of $22.0 million, and British securities with a fair value of $77.0 million. We have reviewed all of these securities as of December 31, 2011 and do not believe that there is a risk of credit loss as these securities are in a gross unrealized gain position of $5.5 million, and a gross unrealized loss position of $1.8 million. We held no European sovereign debt at December 31, 2011.

Goodwill.  We have made acquisitions in the past that have resulted in a significant amount of goodwill. As of December 31, 2011 and 2010, goodwill aggregated $1,452.2 million and $1,470.7 million, respectively. The majority of our goodwill as of December 31, 2011 and 2010 relates to goodwill recorded in connection with the Chicago Title merger in 2000. In evaluating the recoverability of goodwill, we early adopted an accounting standard that allowed us to perform a qualitative analysis to determine whether it is more likely than not that our fair value exceeds our carrying value. Based on the results of this analysis, an annual goodwill impairment test may be completed based on an analysis of the discounted future cash flows generated by the underlying assets. The process of determining whether or not goodwill is impaired or recoverable relies on projections of future cash flows, operating results and market conditions. Future cash flow estimates are based partly on projections of market conditions such as the volume and mix of refinance and purchase transactions and interest rates, which are beyond our control and are likely to fluctuate. While we believe that our estimates of future cash flows are reasonable, these estimates are not guarantees of future performance and are subject to risks and uncertainties that may cause actual results to differ from what is assumed in our impairment tests. Such analyses are particularly sensitive to changes in estimates of future cash flows and discount rates. Changes to these estimates might result in material changes in fair value and determination of the recoverability of goodwill, which may result in charges against earnings and a reduction in the carrying value of our goodwill in the future.We have completed our annual goodwill impairment analysis in each of the past three years and as a result, no impairment charges were recorded to goodwill in 2011, 2010, or 2009. As of December 31, 2011, we have determined that we have a fair value which substantially exceeds our carrying value.

Other Intangible Assets.  We have intangible assets that were acquired through business acquisitions. These assets consist of purchased customer relationships, trademarks, contracts, and the excess of purchase price over the fair value of identifiable net assets acquired (goodwill), discussed above. The determination of estimated useful lives and the allocation of the purchase price to the fair values of the intangible assets requires significant judgment and may affect the amount of future amortization on intangible assets other than goodwill.

The valuation of intangible assets such as purchased customer relationships and contracts involves significant estimates and assumptions concerning matters such as customer retention, future cash flows and discount rates. If any of these assumptions change, it could affect the carrying value of these assets in the future. Purchased customer relationships are amortized over their estimated useful lives using an accelerated method which takes into consideration expected customer attrition rates over a ten-year period. Contractual relationships are generally amortized using the straight-line method over their contractual life. Trademarks are considered intangible assets with indefinite lives and are reviewed for impairment at least annually. There were no impairment charges recorded relating to intangible assets during 2011, 2010 or 2009.

Revenue Recognition.  Our direct title insurance premiums and escrow, title-related and other fees are recognized as revenue at the time of closing of the related transaction as the earnings process is then considered complete, whereas premium revenues from agency operations and agency commissions include an accrual based on estimates using historical information of the volume of transactions that have closed in a particular period for which premiums have not yet been reported to us. The accrual for agency premiums is necessary because of the lag between the closing of these transactions and the reporting of these policies to us by the agent. Historically, the time lag between the closing of these transactions by our agents and the reporting of these policies, or premiums, to us has been up to 15 months, with 60-70% reported within three months following closing, an additional 20-30% reported within the next three months and the remainder within seven to fifteen months. In addition to accruing these earned but unreported agency premiums, we also accrue agent commission expense, which was 77.1%, 78.6% and 79.6% of agent premiums

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earned in 2011, 2010 and 2009, respectively. We also record provision for claim losses at our average provision rate at the time we record the accrual for the premiums, which was 7.0% for 2011 and 2010 and 7.3% for 2009, and accruals for premium taxes and other expenses relating to our premium accrual. The resulting impact to pretax earnings in any period is less than 10% of the accrued premium amount. The impact of the change in the accrual for agency premiums and related expenses for the years ended December 31, 2011, 2010 and 2009 on our pretax earnings was an increase (decrease) of $7.8 million, $10.7 million and $(3.4) million, respectively. The amount due from our agents relating to this accrual, i.e. the agent premium less their contractual retained commission, was approximately $91.3 million and $112.1 million at December 31, 2011 and 2010, respectively, which represents agency premiums of approximately $441.2 million and $546.0 million at December 31, 2011 and 2010, respectively, and agent commissions of $349.9 million and $433.9 million at December 31, 2011 and 2010, respectively. We may have changes in our accrual for agency revenue in the future if additional relevant information becomes available.

Accounting for Income Taxes.  As part of the process of preparing the consolidated financial statements, we are required to determine income taxes in each of the jurisdictions in which we operate. This process involves estimating actual current tax expense together with assessing temporary differences resulting from differing recognition of items for income tax and accounting purposes. These differences result in deferred income tax assets and liabilities, which are included within the Consolidated Balance Sheets. We must then assess the likelihood that deferred income tax assets will be recovered from future taxable income and, to the extent we believe that recovery is not likely, establish a valuation allowance. To the extent we establish a valuation allowance or increase this allowance in a period, we must reflect this increase as an expense within income tax expense in the Consolidated Statement of Earnings. Determination of income tax expense requires estimates and can involve complex issues that may require an extended period to resolve. Further, the estimated level of annual pre-tax income can cause the overall effective income tax rate to vary from period to period. We believe that our tax positions comply with applicable tax law and that we adequately provide for any known tax contingencies. We believe the estimates and assumptions used to support our evaluation of tax benefit realization are reasonable. However, final determination of prior-year tax liabilities, either by settlement with tax authorities or expiration of statutes of limitations, could be materially different than estimates reflected in assets and liabilities and historical income tax provisions. The outcome of these final determinations could have a material effect on our income tax provision, net income or cash flows in the period that determination is made.
Certain Factors Affecting Comparability
Year ended December 31, 2009.  As a result of favorable claim loss development on our prior policy years, in 2009 we released excess reserves of $74.4 million, or $47.1 million net of income taxes, to our provision for title claim losses. In addition, we recorded an average 7.3% provision for title claims losses. Also, as a result of certain court rulings, we reversed an insurance receivable by $63.2 million, or $40.0 million net of income taxes, as an increase to our provision for claim losses.


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Results of Operations
 Consolidated Results of Operations
 Net earnings.  The following table presents certain financial data for the years indicated:
 
Year Ended December 31,
 
2011
 
2010
 
2009
 
(Dollars in millions)
Revenue:
 

 
 

 
 

Direct title insurance premiums
$
1,431.5

 
$
1,404.5

 
$
1,475.3

Agency title insurance premiums
1,829.6

 
2,236.7

 
2,452.3

Escrow, title-related and other fees
1,429.1

 
1,401.4

 
1,424.0

Interest and investment income
142.7

 
135.0

 
143.9

Realized gains and losses, net
6.7

 
235.7

 
25.8

Total revenue
4,839.6

 
5,413.3

 
5,521.3

Expenses:
 

 
 

 
 

Personnel costs
1,578.0

 
1,578.6

 
1,620.0

Other operating expenses
1,083.0

 
1,145.5

 
1,228.1

Agent commissions
1,410.8

 
1,758.7

 
1,951.7

Depreciation and amortization
73.5

 
86.7

 
105.0

Provision for title claim losses
222.3

 
248.9

 
264.7

Interest expense
57.2

 
46.2

 
36.7

Total expenses
4,424.8

 
4,864.6

 
5,206.2

Earnings from continuing operations before income taxes and equity in earnings (loss) of unconsolidated affiliates
414.8

 
548.7

 
315.1

Income tax expense
134.4

 
189.8

 
96.8

Equity in earnings (loss) of unconsolidated affiliates
9.7

 
(1.2
)
 
(11.7
)
Net earnings from continuing operations
$
290.1

 
$
357.7

 
$
206.6

Orders opened by direct title operations (in 000's)
2,140.1

 
2,385.3

 
2,611.4

Orders closed by direct title operations (in 000's)
1,514.2

 
1,574.3

 
1,792.0

 Revenues.
Total revenue in 2011 decreased $573.7 million compared to 2010, reflecting a decrease in both the Fidelity National Title Group and the corporate and other segments. Total revenue in 2010 decreased $108.0 million compared to 2009, reflecting a decrease in the Fidelity National Title Group segment offset by an increase in the corporate and other segment.
Escrow, title-related and other fees increased $27.7 million, or 2.0%, in 2011 compared to 2010, consisting of an increase of $38.9 million in the Fidelity National Title Group segment offset by a decrease of $11.2 million in the corporate and other segment. Escrow, title-related and other fees decreased $22.6 million, or 1.6% in 2010 compared to 2009, consisting of decreases of $47.9 million in the Fidelity National Title Group segment offset by an increase of $25.3 million in the corporate and other segment.
The change in revenue from operations is discussed in further detail at the segment level below.
Interest and investment income levels are primarily a function of securities markets, interest rates and the amount of cash available for investment. Interest and investment income was $142.7 million, $135.0 million, and $143.9 million for the years ended December 31, 2011, 2010, and 2009, respectively. The increase in 2011 as compared to 2010 is due to an overall increase in the fixed maturity security portfolio book value during 2011 as well as dividend income received on our preferred stock which was not held during 2010. The decrease in 2010 compared to 2009 is due to overall declines in bond interest income on our fixed maturity securities in 2010. Average invested assets were $3,792.2 million, $3,928.7 million, and $3,972.1 million for the years ended December 31, 2011, 2010, and 2009, respectively. Effective return on average invested assets, excluding realized gains and losses, was 4.3%, 4.0%, and 4.1% for the years ended December 31, 2011, 2010, and 2009, respectively.
Net realized gains and losses totaled $6.7 million, $235.7 million, and $25.8 million for the years ended December 31, 2011, 2010, and 2009, respectively. The net realized gain for the year ended December 31, 2011 includes $28.2 million net gains on

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various investments and other assets, offset by a $4.4 million decrease in the value of our structured notes and $17.1 million in impairment charges on investments determined to be other-than-temporarily impaired. The net realized gain for the year ended December 31, 2010 includes a $98.4 million gain on the sale of our 32% interest in Sedgwick in May 2010, a $27.2 million gain on the sale of a corporate bond purchased during 2009, a $21.7 million gain on the sale of FIS stock as part of a tender offer, $11.4 million in gains resulting from an increase in the value of our structured notes, and $77.0 million in gains from the sale of other various investments and assets. The net realized gain for the year ended December 31, 2009, included impairment charges totaling $6.9 million on equity securities that were deemed to be other-than-temporarily impaired, net realized gains on sales of various investments of $28.1 million, and net gains on sales of other assets of $4.6 million.
 Expenses.
Our operating expenses consist primarily of personnel costs and other operating expenses, which in our title insurance business are incurred as orders are received and processed, and agent commissions, which are incurred as revenue is recognized. Title insurance premiums, escrow and title-related fees are generally recognized as income at the time the underlying transaction closes. As a result, direct title operations revenue lags approximately 45-60 days behind expenses and therefore gross margins may fluctuate. The changes in the market environment, mix of business between direct and agency operations and the contributions from our various business units have impacted margins and net earnings. We have implemented programs and have taken necessary actions to maintain expense levels consistent with revenue streams. However, a short time lag exists in reducing variable costs and certain fixed costs are incurred regardless of revenue levels.
Personnel costs include base salaries, commissions, benefits, stock-based compensation and bonuses paid to employees, and are one of our most significant operating expenses. Personnel costs totaled $1,578.0 million, $1,578.6 million, and $1,620.0 million for the years ended December 31, 2011, 2010 and 2009, respectively. Personnel costs as a percentage of total revenues were 32.6%, 29.2%, and 29.3% for the years ended December 31, 2011, 2010, and 2009, respectively. In the Fidelity National Title Group segment, the decrease of $17.9 million in 2011 from 2010 is due mainly to decreases in open and closed order counts. The decrease in personnel costs of $44.1 million in 2010 from 2009 is due mainly to decreases in title premiums from direct operations and decreases in opened and closed order counts. Also affecting the comparison was $23.9 million in synergy bonuses earned in 2009 by certain executives upon realizing our synergy goals with respect to the acquisition of the LFG Underwriters. Average employee count in the title segment increased to 17,036 in 2011 from 16,747 in 2010 and decreased in 2010 from 17,411 in 2009. Personnel costs in the title segment as a percentage of total revenues from direct title premiums and escrow, title-related and other fees were 54.3%, 56.3% and 55.5% for the years ended December 31, 2011, 2010, and 2009, respectively. The increase in personnel costs in the corporate and other segment of $17.3 million in 2011 from 2010 is due mainly to higher bonus accruals earned as part of our cost savings initiative as well as improved overall profitability. Personnel costs in the corporate and other segment increased $2.7 million in 2010 from 2009. Included in personnel costs is stock-based compensation expense of $26.6 million, $25.1 million, and $33.7 million for the years ended December 31, 2011, 2010, and 2009, respectively.
Other operating expenses consist primarily of facilities expenses, title plant maintenance, premium taxes (which insurance underwriters are required to pay on title premiums in lieu of franchise and other state taxes), postage and courier services, computer services, professional services, travel expenses, general insurance, and trade and notes receivable allowances. Other operating expenses as a percentage of direct title insurance premiums and escrow, title-related and other fees were 37.9% in 2011 , 40.8% in 2010, and 42.4% in 2009. Other operating expenses decreased $62.5 million or 5.5% in 2011 from 2010, reflecting decreases of $55.6 million in the Fidelity National Title Group segment and $6.9 million in the corporate and other segment. In the Fidelity National Title Group segment, the decrease in other operating expenses was due mainly to decreases in facilities costs and technology costs as part of our corporate cost savings initiative. The decrease in the corporate and other segment was due primarily to the cost of sales on the sale of a large parcel of land and timber at our majority owned affiliate Cascade Timberlands included in the 2010 period. Other operating expenses decreased $82.6 million or 6.7% in 2010 from 2009, reflecting decreases of $106.0 million in the Fidelity National Title Group segment offset by an increase of $23.4 million in the corporate and other segment. In the Fidelity National Title Group segment, the decrease was due mainly to declines in business levels from the prior year. The increase in the corporate and other segment was due primarily to the cost of sales on the sale of a large parcel of land and timber at our majority owned affiliate Cascade Timberlands included in the 2010 period. Other operating expenses for the years ended December 31, 2011, 2010 and 2009, included $1.4 million, $11.7 million and $7.4 million, respectively, in abandoned lease charges relating to office closures.
Agent commissions represent the portion of premiums retained by agents pursuant to the terms of their respective agency contracts. The change in agent commissions is discussed in further detail at the segment level below.
Depreciation and amortization decreased $13.2 million in 2011 from 2010 and $18.3 million in 2010 from 2009 in both cases due to older assets being fully depreciated and a decrease in capital spending over the past several years.
The provision for title claim losses includes an estimate of anticipated title and title-related claims, and escrow losses. We monitor our claims loss experience on a continual basis and adjust the provision for claim losses accordingly as new information

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becomes known, new loss patterns emerge, or as other contributing factors are considered and incorporated into the analysis of the reserve for claim losses. The provision for title claim losses is discussed in further detail below at the segment level.
Interest expense for the years ended December 31, 2011, 2010, and 2009 was $57.2 million, $46.2 million, and $36.7 million, respectively. The increase in 2011 from 2010 is due to additional interest incurred on the 4.25% convertible notes issued in August 2011 as well as interest expense incurred on the 6.60% notes issued in May 2010. The increase in 2010 from 2009 is primarily due to the additional interest expense incurred on the 6.60% notes partially offset by decreases in the amount drawn on our floating rate debt and retirement of a portion of our public debt in the prior year.
 Income tax expense was $134.4 million, $189.8 million, and $96.8 million for the years ended December 31, 2011, 2010, and 2009, respectively. Income tax expense as a percentage of earnings from continuing operations before income taxes for the years ended December 31, 2011, 2010, and 2009 was 32.4%, 34.6%, and 30.7%, respectively. The fluctuation in income tax expense as a percentage of earnings from continuing operations before income taxes is attributable to our estimate of ultimate income tax liability and changes in the characteristics of net earnings year to year, such as the weighting of operating income versus investment income.
 Equity in earnings (losses) of unconsolidated affiliates was $9.7 million, $(1.2) million, and $(11.7) million for the years ended December 31, 2011, 2010, and 2009, respectively, and consisted of our equity in the net earnings (losses) of Ceridian, Remy, other investments in unconsolidated affiliates and our former investment in Sedgwick in 2010 and 2009.
Segment Results of Operations
 Fidelity National Title Group
The following table presents certain financial data for the years indicated:
 
Year Ended December 31,
 
2011
 
2010
 
2009
 
(In millions)
Revenues:
 

 
 

 
 

Direct title insurance premiums
$
1,431.5

 
$
1,404.5

 
$
1,475.3

Agency title insurance premiums
1,829.6

 
2,236.7

 
2,452.3

Escrow, title-related and other fees
1,383.5

 
1,344.6

 
1,392.5

Interest and investment income
141.3

 
133.5

 
140.6

Realized gains and losses, net
7.0

 
110.9

 
27.3

Total revenue
4,792.9

 
5,230.2

 
5,488.0

Expenses:
 

 
 

 
 

Personnel costs
1,529.9

 
1,547.8

 
1,591.9

Other operating expenses
1,027.6

 
1,083.2

 
1,189.2

Agent commissions
1,410.8

 
1,758.7

 
1,951.7

Depreciation and amortization
70.6

 
84.9

 
102.6

Provision for title claim losses
222.3

 
248.9

 
264.7

Interest expense
1.4

 
0.3

 
0.8

Total expenses
4,262.6

 
4,723.8

 
5,100.9

Earnings before income taxes and equity in earnings of unconsolidated affiliates
$
530.3

 
$
506.4

 
$
387.1

Total revenues in 2011 decreased $437.3 million or 8.4% compared to 2010. Total revenues in 2010 decreased $257.8 million or 4.7% compared to 2009.





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The following table presents the percentages of title insurance premiums generated by our direct and agency operations:
 
Year Ended December 31,
 
2011
 
2010
 
2009
 
Amount
 
%
 
Amount
 
%
 
Amount
 
%
 
(Dollars in millions)
Title premiums from direct operations
$
1,431.5

 
43.9
%
 
$
1,404.5

 
38.6
%
 
$
1,475.3

 
37.6
%
Title premiums from agency operations
1,829.6

 
56.1

 
2,236.7

 
61.4

 
2,452.3

 
62.4

Total title premiums
$
3,261.1

 
100.0
%
 
$
3,641.2

 
100.0
%
 
$
3,927.6

 
100.0
%
In 2011, the proportion of agency premiums to direct premiums decreased, with agency premiums comprising 56.1% of total premiums in 2011, compared with 61.4% in 2010. In 2010 the proportion of agency premiums to direct premiums decreased slightly to 61.4% of total premiums, compared with 62.4% in 2009.
The increase of $27.0 million in title premiums from direct operations in 2011 was primarily due to an increase in the fee per file in 2011 and an increase in commercial transactions during the year. In 2011, mortgage interest rates have continued to decrease from the historically low levels in 2010. Closed order volumes were 1,514,200 and 1,574,300 in the years ending 2011 and 2010, respectively. The average fee per file in our direct operations was $1,489 and $1,387 in the years ending 2011 and 2010, respectively, with the increase reflecting a higher volume of commercial transactions, which typically have a higher fee per file. The decrease of $70.8 million in title premiums from direct operations in 2010 compared to 2009 was due primarily to a decrease in closed order volumes that was partially offset by an increase in fee per file. Closed order volumes were 1,574,300 and 1,792,000 in the years ending 2010 and 2009, respectively. The average fee per file in our direct operations was $1,387 and $1,248 in the years ending 2010 and 2009, respectively, with the increase reflecting a higher volume of purchase transactions relative to refinance transactions, increases in title insurance rates across 26 states, and a modest increase in commercial transactions, partially offset by declines in home values, particularly in California, Arizona, Florida, and Nevada. The fee per file tends to change as the mix of refinance and purchase transactions changes, because purchase transactions generally involve the issuance of both a lender’s policy and an owner’s policy, resulting in higher fees, whereas refinance transactions typically only require a lender’s policy, resulting in lower fees. The fee per file will also increase as the proportion of commercial orders increases.

The decrease of $407.1 million in agency premiums in 2011 is primarily the result of a decrease in remitted and accrued agency premiums related to the mix of business. Our agency operations typically garner a lower percentage of commercial and refinance transactions and a higher percentage of purchase transactions. We periodically review our agency relationships and consider the agent's experience, financial c